Identification of the varieties is the primary requirement for characterization of the gene pool in agricultural production and implementation of breeding programs. In the present work, a set of six SSR markers was used for identification of cultural material collected on various horticultural farms in Kazakhstan: 30 varieties of Kazakhstani selection, 40 foreign varieties, and 16 Dzhangaliev’s apple clones selected in wild apple populations. Values of expected (H e) and observed (H o) heterozygosity in groups of all analyzed varieties were high: from 0.735 to 0.812 and from 0.661 to 0.721 respectively. Cluster analysis and analysis of genetic distances (STRUCTURE, UPGMA) showed a distribution of all samples into four major groups with a set of small subgroups caused by origin diversity. The first group included Kazakhstani varieties originating from Reneitte Burchardt, the second group included varieties with Aporta in parentage, the third group was represented by subclusters with a majority of foreign varieties, and the last group was composed of Dzhangaliev’s apple clones and Kazakhstani varieties with wild apple as their ancestor. Genotyping revealed inconsistencies in individual samples (and/or parentage) with claimed names. Analysis by markers of the Md-ACS1 and Md-ACO1 genes responsible for ethylene levels in fruits, which according to the literature correlates with fruit hardness and storability, did not reveal among Kazakhstani varieties any ACS1-2/2 homozygotes, the genotype with the highest expression of these traits. A quarter of Kazakhstani varieties and about a half of foreign varieties were heterozygous in ACS1, an indication of medium hardness and relatively long period of fruit storage. In two Kazakhstani and two foreign varieties heterozygous in ACS1, an improvement of the traits is possible owing to homozygosity in ACO1-1/1.
Russian Journal of Genetics – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 12, 2018
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