Based on a biochemical–genetic approach, heterozygosity and divergence of structural genes at 30 enzyme loci were analyzed in six dace species. In addition, intra- and interspecific divergence of gene expression was analyzed based on a sample of 12 to 15 loci. Mean heterozygosities per individual varied as follows: Tribolodon species, H obs = 0.007 ± 0.007 and H exp = 0.007 ± 0.007; T. ezoe, H obs = 0.045 ± 0.016 and H exp = 0.067 ± 0.029. Several variants of genetic distances were estimated. Standard Nei's distances (D N) varied from 0.145 to 0.284 in four dace species studied. As related to Tribolodon dace species, the following genetic distances were obtained for two members of other genera:Pseudaspius leptocephalus, D N = 0.269; Leuciscus waleckii, D N = 0.769. Based on the distance matrices, different clustering algorithms were realized. The main feature shared by different dendrograms was a separate position of the cluster joining Far-Eastern dace species, to whichP. leptocephalus and L. waleckii are successively added. Among the species studied, the proportion of loci similar by expression (E) varied from 87 to 100%. The greatest difference was found between landlocked and landlocked ecotypes of T. hakonensis, E = 67%. The following conclusions can be made: (1) Four studied species of the genus Tribolodon are rather well genetically differentiated. Diagnostic loci are available. (2) A nominal dace species, T. species, should be considered the fourth unambigous species of this genus, which is confirmed by its recent zoological acceptance of this species. (3) The origin and divergence of dace species belonging to the genus Tribolodon are relatively late (1 to 3 Myr ago) historical events. (4) Taxonomically, the genus Tribolodon belong to the tribe Pseudaspinini together with P. leptocephalus, which is confirmed by genetic data. (5) Data on heterozygosity and the divergence of structural and regulatory elements of genome, along with the proposed scheme of speciation types, suggest the following speciation modes for the species studied: for four species, adaptive divergence and for two species, genetic transformation.
Russian Journal of Genetics – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 13, 2004
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