ISSN 1022-7954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2006, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 60–66. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2006.
Original Russian Text © T.V. Lebedeva, H.O. Peusha, 2006, published in Genetika, 2006, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 71–77.
L. has a poor intraspe-
ciﬁc hereditary potential of the resistance to powdery
mildew. The results of genetic and phytopathological
tests have made it possible to identify and describe
more than 30 genes responsible for the resistance of
wheat to this disease. However, this is not sufﬁcient for
successful breeding, because some of the genes have
already lost effectiveness, and others determine the
resistance to a limited number of fungus genotype.
Common wheat (
) is a poten-
tial source of selectively valuable genes determining
the resistance to
DC. f. sp.
Marchal. The resistance of einkorn wheat to powdery
mildew has been observed under different climatic con-
ditions, this character showing considerable intraspe-
ciﬁc variation [1, 2–4]. There are few data on the
genetic determination of the resistance. Some represen-
have been found to have
monogenic (dominant and recessive) control of the
resistance to powdery mildew and carry several minor
genes modifying the expression of the gene responsible
for this control .
We analyzed the pool of
determining a high resistance of plants to the detrimen-
tal effect of the fungus
this problem is important both for understanding the
genetic basis of the introgression of resistance genes
into the genotype of the cultivated species and for the
comparative analysis of the genetic determination of
the immunity to fungal diseases in the genus
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The material was 102
from the collection of the Vavilov All-Russia Institute of
Plant Industry (St. Petersburg, Russia). For analysis, we
used the offsprings of individual plants of each acces-
sion, because preliminary analysis demonstrated that
some accessions of einkorn wheat were heterogeneous
with respect to the susceptibility to powdery mildew.
A natural population of
asitizing common wheat in the Leningrad oblast (Rus-
sia) or clone no. 53 isolated from this population was
used as an inoculum. We also used 11 test isolates of the
fungus differing in virulence that Limpert  had col-
lected in different European countries and selected in
monosporous offspring; these fungi are used for identi-
fying the wheat genes of resistance to powdery mildew.
Table 1 shows the characteristics of the virulences of
these 11 isolates.
To identify the
with the use of phytopathological test, we recorded the
responses of segments of the ﬁrst leaves of phytotron-
grown seedlings to the infection. The leaf segments
were placed onto a 6-g/l agar solution containing
35 mg/l benzimidazole in Petri dishes. Final results
were based on estimation in 10–12 replicates. The inoc-
ulation of leaf segments and analysis of resistance to
the disease were carried out according to Lutz .
The host plant responses were classiﬁed into the fol-
lowing types: resistant (R), susceptible (S), and inter-
mediate (I). Combined estimates (R, I and I, S) meant
that both types of response were observed.
Genetic Control of the Wheat
Resistance to Powdery Mildew
T. V. Lebedeva
and H. O. Peusha
Vavilov All-Russia Institute of Plant Industry, St. Petersburg, 190000 Russia; e-mail: email@example.com
Department of Gene Technology, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, 19086 Estonia
Received March 17, 2005
—Using hybrid analysis and test-clone method, 102 accessions of
L. from the
collection of the Vavilov All-Russia Institute of Plant Industry have been studied. This species of wheat has been
found to by considerably polymorphic with respect to the resistance to the fungus
DC. f. sp.
Marchal. causing powdery mildew. The resistance of most accessions to the fungus population and clones
is determined by dominant genes. In rare cases, the resistance was determined by recessive genes or one, two,
or three oligogenes. A group of einkorn wheat accessions has been found in which the resistance to powdery
mildew was determined by the same dominant factor or different but closely linked ones. Recessive resistance
differ from the recessive gene
determining the resistance of
The genome of
contains various genes of resistance to powdery mildew and is a potential
source of effective genes to be used when selecting cultivated species of wheat for immunity.