ISSN 1022-7954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2008, Vol. 44, No. 11, pp. 1362–1365. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2008.
Original Russian Text © A.Z. Shikhmuradov, A.A. Al’derov, 2008, published in Genetika, 2008, Vol. 44, No. 11, pp. 1566–1569.
Breeding and raising of high yielding cultivars
require a special attention to protection of crops from
adverse biotic and abiotic environmental factors. Under
Dagestan conditions, the most important adverse factor
for the durum wheat
Desf. is an ele-
vated NaCl concentration in soil. As the agrochemical
method (liming) is very expensive, the main strategy in
controlling this factor is breeding salt-tolerant cultivars.
Breeding of such cultivars requires the knowledge
about the inheritance of this trait, the number of genes
determining salt tolerance, and expression of individual
genes in different genotypes. Unfortunately, the genetic
control of the salt tolerance in tetraploid wheats, in par-
, is scarcely studied. In our previous
work, we found durum wheat samples with a high tol-
erance to NaCl displayed in both the laboratory experi-
ment with seedlings in rolls and vegetation experiment
with plants grown in sand [1, 2]. The goal of this work
was to study the genetic control of salt tolerance in ﬁve
accessions of durum wheat.
The object of our study was six accessions of durum
wheat from the world collection of the Vavilov Institute
of Plant Industry (VIR): the salt-tolerant accessions
k-10930, k-15305, k-46660, k-41884, and k-17227 and
salt-sensitive form k-16512 [1, 2].
Salt tolerance of accessions and hybrids was esti-
mated according to the VIR protocol  using a roll
technique, namely, the plants in rolls of ﬁlter paper
were grown on the background of NaCl salinization
(0.7 MPa, 9.8 g/l) to measure the length of seedlings in
the experiment and control (water). The parental forms
were also studied in a vegetation experiment (plants
were grown in sand under salinization conditions ).
The tolerance coefﬁcient was calculated for the paren-
tal forms as the ratio of the mean seedling length under
salinization conditions to the mean seedling length in
the control (water).
Plants were crossed according to a conventional
technique . The sensitive tester k-16512 from Tunis
was used as the maternal parent. The degree of trait
dominance was determined according to Beil and
Atkins  as
degree of dominance; F
, the mean value for ﬁrst gen-
eration plants; P, the mean value for the tolerant parent;
and MP, the mean value for both parents.
The length of each F
seedling was measured. The
plants were considered salt-tolerant if the seedling
length fell into the variation range of the tolerant parent.
, the families displaying the mean seedling length
and variation coefﬁcient close to those of the tolerant
parent were ascribed to the tolerant class; the families
with high variation coefﬁcients, to segregating class;
and the families with the mean seedling length and vari-
ation coefﬁcient close to the values of sensitive parent,
to sensitive class. At least 30 individual plants were
analyzed in each F
family. The correspondence
between the observed and theoretically expected distri-
butions of tolerance in hybrid combinations was
Five salt-tolerant accessions of durum wheat grown
in the presence of 0.7 MPa NaCl were very similar in
the seedling length to the control variant (water), dis-
playing tolerance coefﬁcients of 0.93–0.96, whereas
this characteristic of the sensitive specimen decreased
almost twofold (tolerance coefﬁcient, 0.56; Table 1).
We observed very high correlation between the toler-
Genetic Control of NaCl Tolerance in Seedlings of Durum Wheat
A. Z. Shikhmuradov and A. A. Al’derov
Dagestan Experimental Station, Vavilov All-Russia Institute of Plant Industry, Vavilovo, Derbent raion,
Republic of Dagestan, 368612 Russia
Received September 03, 2007; in ﬁnal form, January 25, 2008
—The genetic control of tolerance to NaCl (0.7 MPa, 9.8 g/l) was studied in six durum wheat acces-
sions from the world collection of the Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry. Analysis of
of the crosses
between tolerant forms and a in accessions k-17227 and k-10930susceptible tester has demonstrated that a high
salt tolerance is determined by one dominant gene; in accession k-46660, by three independent dominant genes;
and in accessions k-15305 and k-41884, by single genes without dominance effect. Potential allelism of the salt
tolerance genes has been studied for the accessions with monogenically determined salt tolerance, and either
identity or tight linkage of the genes determining salt tolerance of accessions k-15305 and k-41884 has been
demonstrated. Provisional designations
are proposed for the genetic factors determining
salt tolerance of accessions k-10930, k-17227, and k-15305, respectively.