Genetic collection of meiotic mutants of winter rye Secale cereale L. (2n = 14) was created. Mutations were detected in inbred F2 generations after self-fertilization of the F1 hybrids, obtained by individual crossing of rye plants (cultivar Vyatka) or weedy rye with plants from autofertile lines. The mutations cause partial or complete plant sterility and are maintained in collection in a heterozygous state. Genetic analysis accompanied by cytogenetic study of meiosis has revealed six mutation types. (1) Nonallelic asynaptic mutations sy1 and sy9 caused the formation of only axial chromosome elements in prophase and anaphase. The synaptonemal complexes (SCs) were absent, the formation of the chromosome “bouquet” was impaired, and all chromosomes were univalent in meiotic metaphase I in 96.8% (sy1) and 67% (sy2) of cells. (2) Weak asynaptic mutation sy3, which hindered complete termination of synapsis in prophase I. Subterminal asynaptic segments were always observed in the SC, and at least one pair of univalents was present in metaphase I, but the number of cells with 14 univalents did not exceed 2%. (3) Mutations sy2, sy6, sy7, sy8, sy10, and sy19, which caused partially nonhomologous synapsis: change in pairing partners and fold-back chromosome synapsis in prophase I. In metaphase I, the number of univalents varied and multivalents were observed. (4) Mutation mei6, which causes the formation of ultrastructural protrusions on the lateral SC elements, gaps and branching of these elements. (5) Allelic mutations mei8 and mei8-10, which caused irregular chromatin condensation along chromosomes in prophase I, sticking and fragmentation of chromosomes in metaphase I. (6) Allelic mutations mei5 and mei10, which caused chromosome hypercondensation, defects of the division spindle formation, and random arrest of cells at different meiotic stages. However, these mutations did not affect the formation of microspore envelopes even around the cells, whose development was blocked at prophase I. Analysis of cytological pictures of meiosis in double rye mutants reveled epistatic interaction in the mutation series sy9 > sy1 > sy3 > sy19, which reflects the order of switching these genes in the course of meiosis. The expression of genes sy2 and sy19 was shown to be controlled by modifier genes. Most meiotic mutations found in rye have analogs in other plant species.
Russian Journal of Genetics – Springer Journals
Published: Nov 11, 2005
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