ISSN 1022-7954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2006, Vol. 42, No. 6, pp. 667–671. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2006.
genus, divided into three subgenera (
) belongs to the family of
 and its numerous types are produced
commercially by curing method, production area and
usage purpose in manufacturing for different morpho-
logical and chemical characteristics . It grows from
N to 38
S [3, 4].
is a nat-
ural amphidiploid (2
= 48) arisen by spontaneous
hybridization of wild progenitors [5–7].
Although it is a tropical plant and its origin comes
from South America,
species were introduced
to Turkey during the 16th century by Venedician and
English sailors. The ﬁrst permission for growing
tobacco was given by Ottomans in 1687 . Economic
value of tobacco is quite important because of the
income for 5 million farmers in Turkey. Total tobacco
production is about 6 million t and its 500 000 t oriental
(shark type). Almost the half of the total production
belongs to ﬂue-cured (FCV) virginia types as 53%,
used mainly for manufacturing, and is followed by bur-
ley as 33% and shark types as 15–30% . However,
some of the tobaccos grown in eastern Anatolia are con-
sidered to be very similar to virginia tobaccos because
of the content of high carbonhydrate and sugar content,
nicotine rate and ﬂour . In addition, these plants are
known as primitive types of tobacco . It is believed
that the tobacco type originated from Mus in the eastern
Anatolia types is most similar to the Virginia type .
Thus, these types of tobaccos were suggested to be used
for manufactoring instead of Virginia-type tobacco and,
if necessary, using breeding methods between these
plants [4, 10].
Studies on the genetic diversity and evaluation were
performed by several researchers in the genus
[11–13]. Molecular techniques have been used for
comparing the genotypes in most plants such as wheat
, rice , sunﬂower , bean , barley ,
species  by numerous
methods: RAPDs , AFLP [20, 22], and SSR .
However, it did not reach any molecular analysis in
terms of genetic diversity and geographical distribution
in eastern Anatolia tobaccos. In this study, a RAPD
analysis was done to compare the FCV type with the
east Anatolian type tobaccos and to evaluate the geo-
graphic polymorphism in terms of genetic similarity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Twenty-one primitive-type tobacco culti-
vars were picked up from the regions of eastern of Tur-
key (TR) to compare to ﬂue-cured virginia type (United
States) tobacco in similarity. The regions and types of
tobacco are given in Table 1.
Twenty seeds per popula-
tion were grown in a culture medium and total genomic
DNA was individually extracted from young leaves fol-
lowing a CTAB protocol .
DNA was diluted in TE buffer (1 mM Tris, pH 8.0,
0.1 mM EDTA, pH 8.0). DNA concentration was quan-
tiﬁed with an Eppendorf Fluorometer.
Genetic and Geographic Polymorphism
of Cultivated Tobaccos (
) in Turkey*
and A. Okumus
Trakya University, Crop Science Department, Tekirdag, 59030 Turkey
Ondokuz Mayis University, Biometry–Genetics Unit, Samsun, 55139 Turkey;
fax: 90 362 4576034; e-mail: email@example.com
Received October 21, 2005
= 48) is a natural amphidiploid and shows a distribution over a geographical
area in eastern Anatolia. Random ampliﬁed polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to evaluate both
genetic diversity among 21 primitive tobacco accessions comparing ﬂue cure virginia genotype (FCV) and their
geographical polymorphism as a source of genetic variations for breeding programs. Only 13 of all the 60 ran-
dom primers used in RAPD showed polymorphism acceptable for characterization of these accessions. Totally
118 RAPD fragments were generated from 13 decamer primer and 64 of them were found polymorphic
(54.2%). Mus and FCV showed the smallest genetic distance among accessions cultivated in the eastern Ana-
tolia. These results shows that the RAPD assay is a powerful approach for identifying genetic and geographic
* This article was submitted by the authors in English.