Genetic and epigenetic interactions in allopolyploid plants

Genetic and epigenetic interactions in allopolyploid plants Allopolyploid plants are hybrids that contain two copies of the genome from each parent. Whereas wild and cultivated allopolyploids are well adapted, man-made allopolyploids are typically unstable, displaying homeotic transformation and lethality as well as chromosomal rearrangements and changes in the number and distribution of repeated DNA sequences within heterochromatin. Large increases in the length of some chromosomes has been documented in allopolyploid hybrids and could be caused by the activation of dormant retrotransposons, as shown to be the case in marsupial hybrids. Synthetic (man-made) allotetraploids of Arabidopsis exhibit rapid changes in gene regulation, including gene silencing. These regulatory abnormalities could derive from ploidy changes and/or incompatible interactions between parental genomes, although comparison of auto- and allopolyploids suggests that intergenomic incompatibilities play the major role. Models to explain intergenomic incompatibilities incorporate both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. In one model, the activation of heterochromatic transposons (McClintock's genomic shock) may lead to widespread perturbation of gene expression, perhaps by a silencing interaction between activated transposons and euchromatic genes. Qualitatively similar responses, of lesser intensity, may occur in intraspecific hybrids. Therefore, insight into genome function gained from the study of allopolyploidy may be applicable to hybrids of any type and may even elucidate positive interactions, such as those responsible for hybrid vigor. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Plant Molecular Biology Springer Journals

Genetic and epigenetic interactions in allopolyploid plants

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Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2000 by Kluwer Academic Publishers
Subject
Life Sciences; Biochemistry, general; Plant Sciences; Plant Pathology
ISSN
0167-4412
eISSN
1573-5028
D.O.I.
10.1023/A:1006480722854
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Allopolyploid plants are hybrids that contain two copies of the genome from each parent. Whereas wild and cultivated allopolyploids are well adapted, man-made allopolyploids are typically unstable, displaying homeotic transformation and lethality as well as chromosomal rearrangements and changes in the number and distribution of repeated DNA sequences within heterochromatin. Large increases in the length of some chromosomes has been documented in allopolyploid hybrids and could be caused by the activation of dormant retrotransposons, as shown to be the case in marsupial hybrids. Synthetic (man-made) allotetraploids of Arabidopsis exhibit rapid changes in gene regulation, including gene silencing. These regulatory abnormalities could derive from ploidy changes and/or incompatible interactions between parental genomes, although comparison of auto- and allopolyploids suggests that intergenomic incompatibilities play the major role. Models to explain intergenomic incompatibilities incorporate both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. In one model, the activation of heterochromatic transposons (McClintock's genomic shock) may lead to widespread perturbation of gene expression, perhaps by a silencing interaction between activated transposons and euchromatic genes. Qualitatively similar responses, of lesser intensity, may occur in intraspecific hybrids. Therefore, insight into genome function gained from the study of allopolyploidy may be applicable to hybrids of any type and may even elucidate positive interactions, such as those responsible for hybrid vigor.

Journal

Plant Molecular BiologySpringer Journals

Published: Oct 16, 2004

References

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