1022-7954/01/3707- $25.00 © 2001
Russian Journal of Genetics, Vol. 37, No. 7, 2001, pp. 748–753. Translated from Genetika, Vol. 37, No. 7, 2001, pp. 908–914.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2001 by Cherednichenko, Biyasheva, Akhmatullina.
In addition to radiation and chemical factors, the
effects of biogenic mutagens has become the focus of
attention. These mutagens include a variety of DNA-
and RNA-containing viruses.
Molecular mechanisms of virus-induced mutagene-
sis were studied only for carcinogenic and some DNA-
containing viruses whose genomes can incorporate into
the cellular genome as is the case with transposable
genetic elements. Genetic effects of RNA-containing
viruses, which were not shown to directly interact with
the host cell genome, deserves special attention.
In the present work, we examined the inﬂuenza
virus. Its scientiﬁc and practical interest is related to its
wide occurrence in nature, high incidence in humans,
and special features of genetic and structural organiza-
tion determining its interaction with sensitive cells of
the human body.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A standard strain of the A-inﬂuenza virus,
the fowl plague virus (FPV) (Weybridge strain), anti-
genic formula H7N7 was used. The concentration of
the virus suspension was
(EID is a 50% egg
We used the following
laboratory genetic lines:
(wild type); line
on the X chromo-
some marked with genes
cot eye color), and
(yellow body color) and a line
containing deletion Df(1)RA-19v in the 1F1-2–2B9-10
region and duplication Dp(1)yY67g overlapping the
1F3–3C10-11 region. These lines were obtained from
the Laboratory of Molecular Cytogenetics, Institute of
Cytology and Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Estimation of mutagenic activity.
activity of the inﬂuenza virus was estimated using two
modes of administration: by feeding and by injection.
In the ﬁrst case, 2-day-old larvae were kept in the virus
suspension or a virus-free allantois liquid (control) for
48 h and then transferred to a fresh medium for further
development. In the second case, 0.11 mg of the sus-
pension was injected to 2-day-old males using a
microneedle. The treated males were crossed to virgin
females 24 h after emergence or on the day fol-
lowing the injection. The mutagenic activity of the
inﬂuenza virus was estimated by counting sex-linked
recessive lethal mutations in males and females accord-
ing to the Muller-5 procedure .
Genetic mapping of lethal mutations.
cytogenetic localization of obtained mutations, females
carrying a lethal mutation in a heterozygous condition
were crossed to males carrying deletion Df(1)RA-19v
in the 1F1-2–2B9-10 region and duplication Dp(1)yY67g
overlapping the 1F3–3C10-11 region. The sizes of the
deletion and the duplication were estimated by visual
examination of polytene chromosomes under a light
Localization of mutations in the regions of the dele-
tion and the duplication was determined by the pres-
ence or absence of males and females bearing the dele-
tion and the duplication. The absence of deletion-bear-
ing females heterozygous for a lethal mutation in the
Genetic Analysis of Recessive Lethal Mutations
Induced by the Influenza Virus in the X Chromosome
O. G. Cherednichenko
, Z. M. Biyasheva
, and N. B. Akhmatullina
Institute of General Genetics and Cytology, Almaty, 480060 Kazakhstan,
al Faraby Kazakh State National University, Almaty, 480078 Kazakhstan
Received July 11, 2000; in ﬁnal form, December 1, 2000
—Mutagenic potential of the inﬂuenza virus was evaluated. Based on its capacity of inducing reces-
sive lethal mutations in the X chromosome of
, the inﬂuenza virus can be classiﬁed as
a moderate-activity mutagen. Its mutagenicity does not depend on ability to reproduce in the cell system. This
virus was shown to disrupt formation of the wing, particularly wing vein M
1 + 2
. Cytogenetic examination of
polytene X chromosomes bearing recessive lethal mutations in
salivary glands did not reveal chro-
mosome rearrangements. These lethals are assumed to be small deletions or point mutations. The determination
of the lethal activity stage of these mutations showed that they disrupt the expression of genes functioning at
various developmental stages of
Two of them were conditionally lethal (temperature-sensitive).
Two of 15 mutations analyzed were mapped to region 2B9-10–3C10-11.