1022-7954/05/4110- © 2005 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Russian Journal of Genetics, Vol. 41, No. 10, 2005, pp. 1176–1181. Translated from Genetika, Vol. 41, No. 10, 2005, pp. 1428–1433.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2005 by Laikova, Arbuzova, Efremova, Popova.
Anthocyanin pigmentation of various organs devel-
ops in plants of various families (beginning from seed-
lings) under certain conditions of growth (light, tem-
perature, drought, etc). Anthocyanins are known to
make the greatest contribution to intense red to blue
plant pigmentation. Anthocyanins belong to ﬂavonoids,
the largest group of phenol compounds that are synthe-
sized exclusively in higher plants. Pigment synthesis in
plants is only a part of major biochemical changes that
occur during ﬂower and fruit development and matura-
tion . The problem of anthocyanin plant pigmenta-
tion is extremely complex, depending on a number of
factors, including the structure of anthocyaniding, which
determine a shift of pigmentation toward blue upon
hydroxylation and toward red, upon methylation .
High activity of redox enzymes is characteristic of
anthocyanin-containing plants. In these plants, photo-
synthesis is more intense than in plants incapable of
synthesizing this pigment [1–3]. Anthocyanin synthesis
depends on genotype, which suggests a possible adap-
tive role of this trait and the genes that control it .
Along with other plant phenols, anthocyanins are
involved in development of plant resistance to diseases
Pigmentation of various organs in wheat plants is
the most intense in ontogeny under strong insolation
and temperature difference. Purple (purple) or red pig-
mentation is controlled by the following genes:
controlling coleoptile pigmentation;
of the leaf basis and leaf sheath loops;
, anther pig-
mentation during blooming;
, culm pigmentation at
the beginning of grain maturation;
tion of ear and grain glumes; and
, purple pigmenta-
tion of caryopsis pericarp .
Genetic analysis of anthocyanin pigmentation of
coleoptile as a trait revealed three homeoallelic genes
, located on chromosomes 7AS, 7BS,
and 7DS, respectively . Molecular cloning of these
genes with the use of SSR markers showed that the
genes are located at the same distance from the cen-
tromeres of chromosomes 7AS, 7BS, and 7DS. There-
fore, they were designated
those belonging to the same homeologic group .
In addition to the known gene
localized to chro-
mosome 7BS and determining purple culm pigmenta-
tion , we have identiﬁed the second gene that con-
trols culm pigmentation, namely
on 7DS chromo-
some, which is not allelic to gene
[4, 11, 12].
Maistrenko  has studied eight common wheat
varieties with pigmented culms (
) and anthers (
These are varieties Novosibirskaya 67, Saratovskaya
210, Il’ichevka, Mironovskaya 808, Ukrainka, Novosi-
birskaya 7, Pyrotrix 28, and Strela . Analysis of the
hybrid populations derived from crosses between
these varieties and monosomics from seven homeo-
logic groups showed that the gene of purple culm pig-
mentation is located on chromosome 7D. Diallelic
crosses of the varieties with each other and with reces-
sive testers showed that all of them carry the allelic
 were the ﬁrst to study genetic
control of the trait of anthocyanin anther pigmentation.
The above eight varieties shared a common dominant
, which was also localized to 7D chromo-
some by the method of monosome analysis.
that control anthocyanin
pigmentation of anthers and culms at different stages of
Genetic Analysis of Anthocyanin Pigmentation
of the Anthers and Culm in Common Wheat
L. I. Laikova, V. S. Arbuzova, T. T. Efremova, and O. M. Popova
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia;
fax: (3832) 33-12-75; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received June 1, 2004; in ﬁnal form, March 17, 2005
—Anthocyanin pigmentation of various organs develops during plant ontogeny in response to adverse
and damaging abiotic and biotic stressors (environmental factors). Using the monosome method, the genes
responsible for anther and culm anthocyanin pigmentation (
, respectively) were localized to 7D
chromosome in introgressive lines from crosses between common wheat
L. and the species
Zhuk. Genetic analysis of ten common wheat genotypes using testers carrying genes
showed that these genotypes contained
genes. Visual examination of plants
from 70 and 76 varieties of respectively winter and spring common wheat revealed anthocyanin pigmentation
of anthers and culms in 36 varieties.
genes were presumably introduced into common wheat from
(Eig.) Tzvel., a donor of the D genome.