We studied facultative dominant lethal mutations obtained earlier inDrosophila melanogaster. In some genotypes, these mutations were expressed as lethals, but in other genotypes they lacked this expression. The mutations were maintained in the following cultures: (1) females Muller-5 heterozygous for the mutation; (2) males crossed to attached-Xfemales; and (3) females and males homozygous for the mutation. During culturing, many mutations were found to give rise to phenotypically abnormal progeny. Generally, these abnormalities were morphoses involving various body parts; they were mostly asymmetric and nonheritable. Maternal and paternal effects in the formation of morphoses were observed. In four cases, dimorphic mutations were recorded: a female homozygous for the mutation had mutant phenotype whereas its male counterpart was phenotypically normal. The mutations were recessive with regard to the norm. New phenotypes behaving as mutations with incomplete penetrance arose during culturing. In cultures of mutant homozygotes phenocopies would appear en masse; they would persist for one or two generations and disappear. One wave of phenocopies succeeded another. Visible phenotypes appeared, which further behaved as ordinary recessive mutations. We concluded that these visible manifestations are characteristic for regulatory mutations controlling ontogeny. Their appearance is explained by the activation of new regulatory scenarios caused by blocking standard regulatory pathways.
Russian Journal of Genetics – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 18, 2004
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