The antioxidant defense system involves complex functional coordination of multiple components in different organelles within the plant cell. Here, we have studied the Arabidopsis thaliana early response to the generation of superoxide anion in chloroplasts during active photosynthesis. We exposed plants to methyl viologen (MV), a superoxide anion propagator in the light, and performed biochemical and expression profiling experiments using Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChip® microarrays under conditions in which photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes were active. Data analysis identified superoxide-responsive genes that were compared with available microarray results. Examples include genes encoding proteins with unknown function, transcription factors and signal transduction components. A common GAAAAGTCAAAC motif containing the W-box consensus sequence of WRKY transcription factors, was found in the promoters of genes highly up-regulated by superoxide. Band shift assays showed that oxidative treatments enhanced the specific binding of leaf protein extracts to this motif. In addition, GUS reporter gene fused to WRKY30 promoter, which contains this binding motif, was induced by MV and H2O2. Overall, our study suggests that genes involved in signalling pathways and with unknown functions are rapidly activated by superoxide anion generated in photosynthetically active chloroplasts, as part of the early antioxidant response of Arabidopsis leaves.
Plant Molecular Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Dec 25, 2007
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