During the last 80 years, in order to increase the genetic variability of wheat, translocations containing nine elongated wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum) and eight intermediate wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium) genes, which control resistance to pathogens, were transferred to this crop culture. Genealogical and statistical analysis of 1500 varieties developed using the wheatgrass gave evidence of the continuing increase in the proportion of such varieties in the total number of wheat varieties over the last half-century. Translocations from Ag. elongatum most commonly occur in the pedigrees of the varieties from the United States, less frequently they can be found in Australian and Chinese varieties, and they are extremely rare—in European and African ones. Ag. intermedium most frequently occurs in the pedigrees of the Eastern European varieties, mainly in those from Russia, as well as in the varieties from China. The observed uneven distribution of such varieties may be associated with either the effectiveness of the translocation in the development of resistance to the local populations of pathogens or with the effect of the translocation on the adaptive traits of plants. By computer tracking of pedigrees, we performed an inventory of the translocation donors from Ag. elongatum and Ag. intermedium used in the breeding programs in the United States, Russia, Australia, India, and China. The most widely occurring combinations of the gene complex Lr24/Sr24 of Ag. elongatum with other resistance genes were revealed. In Russia, there were developed varieties in which the 6D chromosome was substituted by the 6Ai chromosome of Ag. intermedium, which controls disease resistance and the adaptivity of plants. The identification and introgression of new translocations indicates that the possibilities of using wheatgrass species for broadening of genetic variability of wheat are far from being exhausted.
Russian Journal of Genetics – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 31, 2016
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