ISSN 10227954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2011, Vol. 47, No. 9, pp. 1091–1095. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2011.
Original Russian Text © A.V. Pheophilov, N.V. Barducov, V.I. Glazko, 2011, published in Genetika, 2011, Vol. 47, No.9, pp. 1230–1235.
Conservation of genetic resources of farm animals
becomes more and more challenging in view of the
high rate of breeds extinction, substitution of local
breeds by transnational ones, and high importance of
the genetic diversity under conditions of new breeding
standards. Monitoring of gene pools of farm animals
and their sustainable use requires selection of molecu
lar genetic markers whose polymorphism estimates
provide simultaneous typing of dozens of loci within
single genome, thereby performing “genome scan
ning” . Comparative analysis of allele distribution
patterns at multiple loci in the gene pools of different
breeds enables identification of intra and interbred
polymorphisms, as well as molecular genetic markers
involved in the interbreed genetic differentiation. At
present, genome scanning is performed using a num
ber of approaches, including DNA biochips for iden
tification of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). It
should be mentioned in this respect that genomewide
single nucleotide substitution identification still
remains problematic, requiring expensive equipment
and study supplies. Nevertheless, a large body of data
was accumulated and genomic SNP databases were
constructed for a number of species. However, all
attempts to construct easytouse and lowcost test
systems based on these data sets gained no success so
far. These test systems are expected to be used for
obtaining reliable data on attribution of the animals to
certain breeds, as well as data on the genomic regions
associated with the development of commercially
important traits. Evaluation of polymorphism of DNA
fragments flanked by inverted repeats of microsatel
lites, and obtained in polymerase chain reaction
(PCR) with a microsatellite fragment as one of the
primers (InterSimple Sequence Repeat, ISSR PCR
markers) , is one of the most easy, inexpensive and
convenient methods of multilocus genome scanning.
In this study, effectiveness of ISSR PCR markers for
identification of the breed specificities was evaluated.
For these purposes, the gene pools of horse breeds dif
ferent by descent and using patterns (local draft and
beef Altaic breed and a group of sport trotting breeds,
including Orlov trotter, American trotter, Russian
trotter, and their crossbreeds) were compared.
The Altaic horse breed displays a number of unique
characters, including adaptation to harsh continental
climate, good health, easy management, and high
working activity. Due to the adaptation of Altaic horses
to the yearround pasture grazing (during winter time
they forage for what they can find under the snow), the
breed is of interest with respect to beef horse herding.
Due to the absence of expenses for forage purchasing
and storage, beef horse herding is highly profitable .
With the purpose of improving meat productivity and
working characteristics, the horses of local Altaic
breed were crossed with draught horse breeds. Breed
ing programs realized at the AllRussia Research
Institute of Horse Breeding resulted in the develop
ment of the modern Altaic horse breed, which was val
idated in 2000.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Experiments were performed using blood samples
of 96 purebred Altaic horses reared at the Enchi
(48 samples) and Chingiz (48 samples) agricultural
production cooperatives (APC). Blood samples
obtained from 48 trotting breed horses reared at the
Povorot V.P. farm, Moscow oblast (7 American trot
ters, 6 Russian trotters, 4 Orlov trotters, and 31 cross
breeds of Russian trotters crossed with American trot
Gene Pool Differentiation between Altaic and Trotting Horse Breeds
Inferred from ISSR PCR Marker Data
A. V. Pheophilov, N. V. Barducov, and V. I. Glazko
Russian State Agrarian University–MTAA, Moscow, 127550 Russia
email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Received December 27, 2010; in final form, March 26, 2011
—Using ISSR PCR marker data, comparative analysis of the gene pools of Altaic and trotting horse
breeds was carried out. Horse groups of different origin demonstrated differences in amplification spectra of
DNA fragments flanked by inverted repeats of four microsatellites. Combinations of certain DNA fragments
present in these profiles reproducibly distinguished genomes of the Altaic breed from the trotting breeds.
Genetic differentiation between some trotting breeds, based on Nei genetic distance values, was found to be
comparable to that between the groups of horses of Altaic breed from two different farms.