P1: GDW/GYQ/GDP/LCT P2: FZN
Sex Roles [sers] pp489-sers-373444 May 24, 2002 23:20 Style ﬁle version Nov. 19th, 1999
Sex Roles, Vol. 45, Nos. 11/12, December 2001 (
Gender-Role Variables and Attitudes
Bernard E. Whitley, Jr.
Ball State University
Two studies examined the relationships of gender-role variables to attitudes
toward homosexuality. Study 1, a meta-analysis, found that endorsement of
traditional gender-role beliefs, modern sexism, and hypermasculinity were
related to attitudes, but that gender-role self-concept was not. Study 2 exam-
ined the relationships of endorsement of male role norms, attitudes toward
women, hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, modern sexism, hypermasculinity,
and hyperfemininity to attitudes toward homosexuality and self-reported anti-
gay behaviors in a college student sample. The best predictors of attitudes were
participant gender, endorsement of male role norms, attitudes toward women,
benevolent sexism, and modern sexism. The best predictors of antigay be-
havior were participant gender and hyper-gender-role orientation; attitudes
toward women and modern sexism were also predictors for men but not for
KEY WORDS: gender roles; attitudes toward homosexuality; anti-gay behavior; meta-analysis.
Prejudice against lesbians and gay men is widespread in American society.
Although Americans’ attitudes toward lesbians and gay men have become
less negative over the course of the past 30 years, and especially during
the last decade, the majority still view homosexuality as morally unaccept-
able (e.g., Yang, 1997). In addition, these negative attitudes are often
acted on in the form of verbal and physical aggression (e.g., Berrill, 1992;
D’Augelli, 1989). For example, 50% of the gay and lesbian college students
surveyed by D’Augelli reported having overheard disparaging comments,
Portions of this research were presented at the 2000 and 2001 meetings of the Midwestern
To whom correspondence should be addressed at Department of Psychological Science, Ball
State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
2002 Plenum Publishing Corporation