We use survey data from a national probability sample of 6,593 adult Afghans and multivariate regression that estimates the effects of several factors on separate indices of gender role attitudes generated by exploratory factor analysis to explore whether men and women differ in their gender role attitudes and the extent to which ecological and socio-demographic factors may mediate both within- and across-group differences. We find that men and women differ in their gender role attitudes, as men report more conservative attitudes than women. These differences manifest whether gender role attitude is measured as procuring basic rights for women, or empowering women politically. Moreover, men and women’s gender role attitudes are not immutable—education, ethnicity, and urbanization and, in women’s case, generational replacement—all act to mediate these differences. The profile of the Afghan man who would hold liberal gender role attitudes is an educated urbanite, non-Sunni or non-Pashtun, who believes in the compatibility of democracy and Islam, trusts outsiders, has exposure to the formal media, and would extend equal rights to all irrespective of gender, religion, or ethnicity. That of the woman is of a younger, educated urbanite, non-Pashtun, who believes in the compatibility of democracy and Islam, trusts outsiders, has exposure to the formal media, and would extend equal rights to all regardless of gender, religion, or ethnicity.
Sex Roles – Springer Journals
Published: Jan 15, 2011
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