This study analyzed 254 unduplicated primetime Philippine television advertisements from 2010 for differences in gender representation. Two coders independently coded the entire sample and achieved an intercoder reliability of greater than .700 for each reported variable. The findings are based on chi-square analyses and indicate a high prevalence of gender differences and stereotypes in Philippine television advertisements. For example, more males were shown in the workplace (17.9 % vs. 7.4 %), whereas more females were shown at home (45.9 % vs. 24.5 %); males were generally fully clothed (88.7 % vs. 44.6 %), whereas females were often suggestively dressed (52.7 % vs. 6.6 %); more males than females delivered voiceovers (46.1 % vs. 35.0 %); and product categories were stereotypically associated with gender. The only exception to these traditional, stereotypical gender portrayals was the predominance of female primary characters in television advertisements (58.3 % vs. 41.7 %). Overall, such stereotypical portrayals do not accurately reflect Philippine society, which is considered to be one of the most egalitarian Asian societies with regard to gender. By analyzing Philippine television advertisements, this study intends to close a gap in the still under-researched area of gender representation in developing countries, which could provide a more complete picture of this topic from an international perspective. The similarities and differences between this research and previous studies on this topic in developing and developed countries are examined. The possible effects of such representation on audiences are discussed based on social cognitive theory and cultivation theory.
Sex Roles – Springer Journals
Published: Jul 13, 2013
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