P1: GYK/HDT/HGL P2: HDT/FZI QC: GLB
Sex Roles [sers] PP380-366661 January 22, 2002 19:26 Style ﬁle version Nov. 19th, 1999
Sex Roles, Vol. 45, Nos. 5/6, September 2001 (
Gender Differences in Attitudes Toward
Afﬁrmative Action Programs in Australia: Effects
of Beliefs, Interests, and Attitudes Toward Women
Alison M. Konrad
University of South Australia
This research identiﬁed mediators explaining the relationship between gen-
der and attitudes toward afﬁrmative action programs for women. Structural
equation modeling was conducted on survey data obtained from academics
at an Australian university (n = 198 with listwise deletion of missing data).
Findings indicated that the relationship between gender and afﬁrmative ac-
tion attitudes was mediated by (1) perceptions of afﬁrmative action’s impact
on material self-interest, (2) belief in the existence of gender discrimination,
and (3) traditional attitudes toward women. Implications for organizations,
policymakers, and researchers are discussed.
Attitudes toward afﬁrmative action (AA) programs have received signif-
icant research attention (Bobo, 1998; Bobo & Kluegel, 1993; Konrad &
Linnehan, 1995; Kravitz & Platania, 1993; Steeh & Krysan, 1996). A minor-
ity of this research has examined attitudes toward AA programs for women.
The research that does exist shows that women support these programs more
than men do (Konrad & Spitz, 1999; Smith & Witt, 1990; Tougas & Beaton,
A previous version of this paper was presented at the Academy of Management meeting in
August 2000 and was a runner-up for the Gender and Diversity in Organizations Division’s
Dorothy Harlow Best Paper Award.
To whom correspondence should be addressed at Department of Human Resource Admin-
istration, Fox School of Business and Management, Temple University, 1810 N. 13th Street,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122-6083; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
2002 Plenum Publishing Corporation