Gender and Ethnic Differences in Smiling: A Yearbook Photographs Analysis from Kindergarten Through 12th Grade

Gender and Ethnic Differences in Smiling: A Yearbook Photographs Analysis from Kindergarten... Previous research has demonstrated that women smile more frequently and more broadly than men (Abel 2002; LaFrance et al. 2003). However, little research has focused specifically on the age at which this gender difference first emerges, and even less on the ethnic differences in smiling. This study attempts to identify the age when gender differences in smiling emerge among European American and African American children and teenagers. Additionally, we looked at the level of diversity within each school and its relation to smiling behavior. In total, 18,201 yearbook photographs ranging from kindergarten through 12th grade from 17 schools in the state of Michigan were evaluated for smile type: full smile, partial smile or no smile. Results suggest that a significant gender difference in smiling emerges around age 11. In contrast to other studies (e.g., LaFrance et al. 2003) and our own expectations, differences in smiling were found to be larger between African American boys and girls than between European American boys and girls. In addition, we found that African American girls’ smiling behavior did not differ as a function of school diversity while African American boys from predominantly African American schools displayed less smiling compared to those from mixed or predominantly European-American schools. This study provides insight into the emergence and progression of gender differences in smiling and indicates that gender as well as ethnicity and ethnic diversity are influential factors in smiling behavior. Sex Roles Springer Journals

Gender and Ethnic Differences in Smiling: A Yearbook Photographs Analysis from Kindergarten Through 12th Grade

Loading next page...
Springer US
Copyright © 2012 by Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
Psychology; Medicine/Public Health, general; Sociology, general; Gender Studies
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site


You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.

DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

Monthly Plan

  • Read unlimited articles
  • Personalized recommendations
  • No expiration
  • Print 20 pages per month
  • 20% off on PDF purchases
  • Organize your research
  • Get updates on your journals and topic searches


Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial

Best Deal — 39% off

Annual Plan

  • All the features of the Professional Plan, but for 39% off!
  • Billed annually
  • No expiration
  • For the normal price of 10 articles elsewhere, you get one full year of unlimited access to articles.



billed annually
Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial