An experimental investigation is conducted into the formation Ge nanoclusters by heat treatment of germanosilicate-glass (Si x Ge y O z ) films that are produced by oxidation of Ge-doped nanostructured polysilicon. It employs Auger and IR spectroscopy, high-resolution electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The process by which Ge atoms in the films are transported toward the substrate is found to include the following stages: (1) the formation of a GeO2 and a SiO2 phase, (2) the reduction of GeO2 to Ge by Si, (3) Ge-crystallite nucleation, and (4) Ge-crystallite growth. Heat treatment in humid oxygen at ≥ 800°C is found to increase Ge-nanocluster size, the point of crystallization being 500°C. It is established that heat treatment at a temperature close to the Ge melting point results in complete aggregation of the germanium into clusters, with a twofold increase in both the mean size and the number of clusters. Germanium is found to accumulate at the interface between oxidized and unoxidized polysilicon.
Russian Microelectronics – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 28, 2009
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