1070-4272/04/7701-0067C2004 MAIK [Nauka/Interperiodica]
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 77, No. 1, 2004, pp. 67!70. Translated from Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, Vol. 77, No. 1,
2004, pp. 70!74.
Original Russian Text Copyright + 2004 by Arkhangel’skaya, Loginova, Kas’yan, Vinogradova.
AND CORROSION PROTECTION OF METALS
Gas Evolution and Absorption in a Sealed Nickel!Zinc Battery
with Nickel Oxide Electrode Fabricated from Spherical
Z. P. Arkhangel’skaya, M. M. Loginova, T. B. Kas’yan, and D. A. Vinogradova
Rigel’ Battery Company, Open Joint-Stock Company, St. Petersburg, Russia
Received July 22, 2003
Abstract-The range of variation of the barometric parameters of a sealed nickel!zinc battery with nickel
oxide electrode made of spherical nickel hydroxide was studied under the conditions of cycling and exposure
in charged and discharged states.
Interdependent functioning of nickel oxide (NOE)
and zinc electrodes in a nickel3zinc (NZ) system is
complicated by the oxygen and hydrogen evolution
occurring on the electrodes, when their potentials are
in the region of thermodynamic instability of water.
Unbalance of main and side processes on the counter-
electrodes leads to unbalance between the degrees of
their charging. The balance can be maintained for
a long time only in a sealed battery owing to efficient
methods of recombination of released gases.
Formation of a sealed nickel3zinc (SNZ) battery is
based on positive results achieved in study and exploi-
tation of sealed nickel3cadmium (SNC) and sealed
lead3acid (SLA) batteries. The most efficient method
of the recombination of accumulating gases in NZ bat-
tery, which has found practical application, involves
the ionization of oxygen on the zinc electrode and the
oxidation of hydrogen on the NOE .
Presently, SNZ batteries based on this principle use
a porous zinc electrode with gauze or a foamed-metal
support and a metal-ceramic nickel oxide electrode
(MC NOE), which ensure insignificant gas evolution
and necessary gas recombination.
The oxygen ionization in chemical alkaline power
sources is well studied for the case of a sealed nickel3
cadmium battery. It was established in [2, 3] that the
rate of the electrochemical recovery of oxygen on the
cadmium electrode reaches 538mAcm
. At limited
rate of its delivery into the pores of cadmium elec-
trode, this process is diffusion-controlled. The most
important result of these works is a conclusion that
the ionization current can be increased considerably
by creating conditions for displacement of a part of
electrolyte from the electrode pores under the pressure
of gas penetrating through separator pores.
The rate of the oxygen ionization on zinc (0.13
0.2 mA cm
)  is less than that on cadmium.
A study of the current variations on a half-immersed
electrode showed that the dependences typical of dif-
fusion mode are not implemented on the zinc elec-
trode. Apparently, the process occurs by the mixed
The conditions of gas delivery to the counterelec-
trode are more complex in SNZ battery than in SNC
battery, which apply microporous separators to im-
pede growth of zinc dendrites. At the same time,
though the rate of oxygen ionization on the zinc elec-
trode is low, the balance between the evolved and
absorbed oxygen at a low internal gas pressure can be
ensured during each cycle (charging, pause, discharge,
and pause) by optimizing the battery design and ap-
plying efficient charging methods . In this case, in
batteries with MC NOE, 60370% of oxygen is ab-
sorbed during charging, and the rest, during the sub-
sequent periods of a cycle.
The interaction of hydrogen with NOE was mainly
studied in a nickel3hydrogen battery and at a pressure
higher than that in SNZ battery. The voltammetric
method was used to show that hydrogen is oxidized at
a marked rate only on the charged NOE, whereas on
the discharged NOE the oxidation rate is virtually
A study of the dynamics of hydrogen accumulation
in the SNZ battery showed that the pressure can be
stabilized depending on the ratio of the rates of its
evolution on the zinc electrode and absorption upon