PRODUCTION AND EQUIPMENT
GAS DYNAMICS IN THE WORKING SPACE
OF A MODERN ELECTRIC-ARC STEELMAKING FURNACE
G. V. Voronov,
M. V. Antropov,
and I. V. Glukhov
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 11, pp. 23 – 26, November, 2014.
Original article submitted September 15, 2014.
Results are presented from an analysis of the motion of gas flows created by fuel-burning devices in existing
electric-arc steelmaking furnaces and recommendations are made on how to efficiently arrange this equipment
in the furnace. Controlled annular motion of the aerodynamic flows in the part of the working space between
the furnace wall and the electrodes increases convective heat transfer to the cold solid charge, forms a reliable
and uniform slag crust on the water-cooled wall, and alleviates the deposition of process dust on the elec
trodes. A numerical study is performed using the SolidWorks Flow Simulation program and boundary condi-
tions that reflect the actual operating conditions in the furnaces.
Keywords: gas dynamics, electric-arc steelmaking furnace (EAF), fuel-combustion devices (FCDs), gas
flow, SolidWorks Flow Simulation program.
Improving the gas dynamics in the working space of
modern electric-arc steelmaking furnaces (EAFs) to provide
for efficient heat transfer and rapid, uniform heating of the
charge over the entire surface of the bath is a technically
complex problem. Experience in the operation of EAFs
shows that optimizing the arrangement of the fuel-combus
tion devices (FCDs) is an empirical undertaking. Any
changes that need to be made to the locations of the FCDs
have already been incorporated into the design of new proto
types, and the expediency of those changes are evaluated
based on the results obtained from the furnaces’ operation.
The potential for putting new ideas to practical use on exist
ing furnaces is always limited, and conducting experimental
studies requires large amounts of time to prepare for and co
ordinate the necessary operations. In the investigation dis
cussed in this article, the above problem was addressed
through computer modeling and engineering analysis.
We used a 3D model of the furnace (Fig. 1) that was pre
viously constructed in the chart-and-graphics editor of the
system KOMPAS-3D and then imported into the supplemen
tal software of the program SolidWorks Flow Simulation to
calculate the gas dynamics of the furnace’s working space.
Models differing in the locations of the FCDs were exam-
ined. In the first model, FCD location was chosen in accor-
dance with a design developed by the company “Danieli”
(variant A). In the second model, the FCDs were positioned
in accordance with the recommendations made in  based
on the results of a graphical analysis of the propagation of
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 55, No. 6, March, 2015
1083-4877/15/05506-0498 © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York
Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia.
Fig. 1. Assembly of the model of the EAF in the editor of