Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2009, Vol. 82, No. 7, pp. 1314−1316.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2009.
Original Russian Text
O.I. Platonov, L.S. Tsemekhman, 2009, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2009, Vol. 82, No. 7, pp. 1218−1220.
Gas Composition Effect on the Klauss Process Efﬁ ciency
O. I. Platonov and L. S. Tsemekhman
“Institute Gipronikel’” Corporation, St. Petersburg, Russia
Received April 16, 2009
Abstract—The effect of the initial gas composition on the efﬁ ciency of the catalytic reaction of the hydrogen
sulﬁ de oxidation by sulfur dioxide was studied experimentally.
At present tens millions tons of sulfur are produced
in the world annually at gas processing and petroleum
reﬁ ning plants according to the Klauss method based on
the process of hydrogen sulﬁ de catalytic oxidation by
sulfur dioxide at 230−260°C :
S + SO
O + 3/nS
, n = 1−8 (1)
In this case any estimate of the Klauss process efﬁ cien-
cy (activity of catalysts) in sulfur recovery units (SRU)
based on measuring ﬁ nal concentrations [SO
] and [H
in SRU tail gas [2, 3] should take into account a varia-
tion of composition (ratio of reagents) in a processed gas.
This is especially important in processing gas with a low
(less than 8 vol %) and variable initial concentration of
hydrogen sulﬁ de that is characteristic, for example, for
the technology of coke-oven gas desulfuration used at
“Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works” JSC .
The effect of original gas composition on the ef-
ﬁ ciency of Klauss reaction (1) was studied using the
data of testing the process of conversion of sulfur-
containing gases in a catalytic reactor, which forms
a part of a pilot plant of the “Institute Gipronikel”
Corporation . The technique of the catalytic experi-
ment on this pilot plant was described in detail earlier
. In this experiment we used an AO-MK-2 alumi-
num-oxide catalyst of the Klauss process produced by
“Novomichurinsk catalytic factory” ZAO in the form
of spherical granules of 4−5 mm in diameter with an
active surface area no less than 240 m
The AO-MK-2 catalyst was tested in the tempera-
ture range of 219−279°C usual for industrial Klauss
reactors. The gas consumption on the reactor inlet was
, which corresponds to the volume
rate of 1600−2000 h
at the full load of the catalyst
). As the Klauss reactor is the third basic ap-
paratus of the pilot plant, the composition of the gas
containing sulfur and water vapors on the reactor inlet
completely corresponds to the composition and varia-
tions of gas in industrial plants of sulfur extraction by the
Klauss method according to the requirements of adequacy
of tests . Hydrogen sulﬁ de initial concentrations [H
in the pilot tests of the AO-MK-2 catalyst were varied in
the range of 0.8–37.4 vol %.
Gas composition on the inlet and outlet of the Klauss
reactor of the pilot plant was measured by an automatic
analytical complex based on an EMG 20-1 time-of-ﬂ ight
mass spectrometer as a gas analyzer allowing the determi-
nation of volume concentrations of all main gas compo-
, COS, CS
, CO, CO
, and Ar) with a threshold sensitivity of 0.01−0.03%.
To calibrate the gas analyzer, we used the veriﬁ cation
gas mixtures prepared by “Scientiﬁ c devices” JSC and
“Monitoring” Corporation (the both in St. Petersburg).
Typical characteristics of the dry gas composition
observed in the pilot test on the Klauss reactor inlet are
given in the table.
Conversion degree of hydrogen sulﬁ de, as well as
those of other sulfur-containing gas components η
determined, as it is accepted in the industry [1, 2, 8, 9],