Fungi with multifunctional lifestyles: endophytic insect pathogenic fungi

Fungi with multifunctional lifestyles: endophytic insect pathogenic fungi This review examines the symbiotic, evolutionary, proteomic and genetic basis for a group of fungi that occupy a specialized niche as insect pathogens as well as endophytes. We focus primarily on species in the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria, traditionally recognized as insect pathogenic fungi but are also found as plant symbionts. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that these fungi are more closely related to grass endophytes and diverged from that lineage ca. 100 MYA. We explore how the dual life cycles of these fungi as insect pathogens and endophytes are coupled. We discuss the evolution of insect pathogenesis while maintaining an endophytic lifestyle and provide examples of genes that may be involved in the transition toward insect pathogenicity. That is, some genes for insect pathogenesis may have been co-opted from genes involved in endophytic colonization. Other genes may be multifunctional and serve in both lifestyle capacities. We suggest that their evolution as insect pathogens allowed them to effectively barter a specialized nitrogen source (i.e. insects) with host plants for photosynthate. These ubiquitous fungi may play an important role as plant growth promoters and have a potential reservoir of secondary metabolites. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Plant Molecular Biology Springer Journals

Fungi with multifunctional lifestyles: endophytic insect pathogenic fungi

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Publisher
Springer Netherlands
Copyright
Copyright © 2015 by Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
Subject
Life Sciences; Plant Sciences; Biochemistry, general; Plant Pathology
ISSN
0167-4412
eISSN
1573-5028
D.O.I.
10.1007/s11103-015-0413-z
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

This review examines the symbiotic, evolutionary, proteomic and genetic basis for a group of fungi that occupy a specialized niche as insect pathogens as well as endophytes. We focus primarily on species in the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria, traditionally recognized as insect pathogenic fungi but are also found as plant symbionts. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that these fungi are more closely related to grass endophytes and diverged from that lineage ca. 100 MYA. We explore how the dual life cycles of these fungi as insect pathogens and endophytes are coupled. We discuss the evolution of insect pathogenesis while maintaining an endophytic lifestyle and provide examples of genes that may be involved in the transition toward insect pathogenicity. That is, some genes for insect pathogenesis may have been co-opted from genes involved in endophytic colonization. Other genes may be multifunctional and serve in both lifestyle capacities. We suggest that their evolution as insect pathogens allowed them to effectively barter a specialized nitrogen source (i.e. insects) with host plants for photosynthate. These ubiquitous fungi may play an important role as plant growth promoters and have a potential reservoir of secondary metabolites.

Journal

Plant Molecular BiologySpringer Journals

Published: Dec 7, 2015

References

  • Reconstructing the diversification of subtilisins in the pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae
    Bagga, S; Hu, G; Screen, SE; St. Leger, RJ
  • Mineral acquisition by arbuscular mycorrhizal plants
    Clark, RB; Zeto, SK
  • Mrt, a gene unique to fungi, encodes an oligosaccharide transporter and facilitates rhizosphere competency in Metarhizium robertsii
    Fang, W; St. Leger, RJ
  • Protein kinase A regulates production of virulence determinants by the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae
    Fang, W; Pava-Ripoll, M; Wang, S; Leger, RS
  • Discovering the secondary metabolite potential encoded within entomopathogenic fungi
    Gibson, DM; Donzelli, BG; Krasnoff, SB; Keyhani, NO
  • A mycorrhizal specific ammonium transporter from Lotus japonicus acquires nitrogen
    Guether, M; Neuhäuser, B; Balestrini, R
  • Pure culture of Metarhizium anisopliae LHL07 reprograms soybean to higher growth and mitigates salt stress
    Khan, AL; Hamayun, M; Khan, SA; Kang, SM; Shinwari, ZK; Kamran, M; Rehman, S; Kim, JG; Lee, IJ
  • The plant beneficial effects of Metarhizium species correlate with their association with roots
    Liao, X; O’Brien, TR; Fang, W; St. Leger, RJ
  • Fungal lipochitooligosaccharide symbiotic signals in arbuscular mycorrhiza
    Maillet, F; Poinsot, V; André, O

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