Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 1, pp. 42−50.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2013.
Original Russian Text © Yu.M. Krivoguz, A.M. Guliev, S.S. Pesetskii, 2013, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 1, pp. 47−55.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Functionalization of Copolymers of Ethylene and Vinyl Acetate
by Grafting of trans-Ethylene-1,2-dicarboxylic
Acid in the Course of Reactive Extrusion
Yu. M. Krivoguz
, A. M. Guliev
, and S. S. Pesetskii
Belyi Metal Polymer Research Institute, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Gomel, Belarus
Institute of Polymeric Materials, National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Sumgait, Azerbaijan
Received September 6, 2012
Abstract—Free-radical grafting of trans-ethylene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid to macromolecules of a copolymer of
ethylene with vinyl acetate in melt in an extrusion reactor, initiated by 1,3-bis(tert-butyl peroxy isopropyl)benzene,
and the structure and mechanical properties of the functionalized products were studied.
In the last two decades, great amount has been given
to studies of the grafting of polar unsaturated monomers
to macromolecules of polyoleﬁ ns (POs) to impart new
functional properties to these macromolecules [1–4].
Polyoleﬁ ns with grafted polar monomers (functionalized
POs) are used as compatibilizers to improve the
compatibility in mixtures of polar and nonpolar polymers,
intensify interphase interactions of the polymer with the
surface of ﬁ llers, improve the adhesion to solid surfaces,
control highly elastic properties of PO melts, and obtain
concentrates of various additives to be used in polymer
composites [3, 4]. The process of functionalization of
PO macromolecules is the most frequently performed
in melt by the reactive extrusion (RE), with the material
cylinder of the extruder serving as a continuous-action
reactor [1, 3–5].
It should be noted that studies having fundamental
importance for development of the theory of reactions
occurring in the functionalization of macromolecules in
melt are mostly concerned with nonpolar POs, such as
polyethylene (PE), poltypropylene (PP). and ethylene-
propylene copolymers [1–5].
The copolymer of ethylene with vinyl acetate
(CEVA) is one of the most important representatives of
the PO class . The comparatively high mechanical
strength, resistance to corrosive media, elasticity at low
temperatures, enhanced adhesion to various materials,
and a number of other speciﬁ c properties enable use of
CEVA for fabrication of technical articles, electrically
insulating cable sheaths, transparent ﬁ lms, compounds,
and mixtures with other polymers and ﬁ llers. In
addition, CEVA is used to produce glues-melts for shoe,
furniture, and other industries; protective coatings on
solid surfaces, metallic pipes with protective polymeric
sheaths, intermediate adhesive layers in multilayer
articles, etc. [6, 7].
The enhanced adhesion activity of CEVA is due to
the presence of carbonyl groups in the sides chains of
the macromolecules. The rise in their concentration
due to the use of large amounts of vinyl acetate (VA)
in synthesis of CEVA is accompanied by an increase
in the adhesion activity of the copolymer [6, 8].
However, this changes the set of rheological, thermal,
and mechanical properties of CEVA. In addition, it is
frequently impossible to control the adhesion activity
of CEVA within the required limits by only varying the
VA concentration. The presence of only side VA pendant
groups in the structure of CEVA macromolecules
fails to provide their satisfactory compatibility and
compatibilizing activity in polymer mixtures .