FUNCTIONAL CARBONIZED REFRACTORIES
S. A. Suvorov,
A. V. Mozhzherin,
A. V. Sakulin,
V. G. Ordin,
and E. V. Rusinova
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 7, pp. 34 – 38, July, 2005.
Functional carbonized refractories for the lining of steel ladles have been developed. Results of tests carried
out on 400-ton steel ladles under industrial conditions are reported. The average durability of the refractory
lining was 94.5 heats against rated value of 100 heats.
A challenging problem in the technology of carbonized
periclase refractories has been production of high-density
A major shortcoming of the carbonized
periclase refractories is that, subjected to oxidation, they suf-
fer decompaction (loss of density). The high density of mate-
rial is achieved by the rational compounding (grain composi-
tion and the amount of bond added) under controlled condi-
tions of the mix preparation, molding and heat-treatment re-
gime. The carbonized periclase refractories are manufactured
using advanced processing equipment: mixers that assure
high quality of the mixes and presses operating at high mold-
ing pressure and mold degassing [1 – 3]. Important features
of carbonized refractories that control the carbon oxidation
rate are the size and volume of open pores, spatial distribu-
tion of pores throughout the bulk of the refractory, gas per
meability, and the contact compatibility of carbon particles
with oxide materials and antioxidant additives .
KAMK-5-grade carbonized alumomagnesian refractories
for the working layer of the lining in the molten-metal zone,
KPShK-8-grade carbonized periclase-spinel refractories for
the lining of the transition zone, KPK-10-grade carbonized
periclase refractories for the lining of the lower slag zone,
and KPK-12-grade carbonized periclase refractories for the
lining of the upper slag zone of the steel ladle have been de
veloped (Fig. 1).
Relevant specifications of the carbonized refractories are
given in Table 1.
Based on an optimized multifractional grain composition
and introducing a carbon constituent (plasticized grains) ,
one can obtain a carbonized refractory with the predominant
pore size not in excess of 5 mm. The pore sizes measured by
mercury porosimetry are given in Table 2.
The high-temperature bending strength for carbonized
KPK-12, KPK-10, KPShK-8, and KAMK-5 refractories
(sintered at 1000 °C for 120 min and tested for bending in an
oxidizing medium at 1300°C) is shown in Fig. 2.
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 46, No. 4, 2005
1083-4877/05/4604-0268 © 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
St. Petersburg State Technological Institute (Technical Univer
sity), St. Petersburg, Russia; Severstal Joint-Stock Co., Cherepo
vets, Vologda Region, Russia.
Patent 4454239, U.S.A.
TABLE 1. Specifications of the Carbonized Refractories
Mass fraction, %
KAMK-5 >50 <7.0 >3.10 >5 >75 <7
KPShK-8 >40 <5.0 >2.98 >82 11 – 18 <8
KPK-10 >40 <4.0 >2.96 >82 6 – 9 <10
KPK-12 >40 <4.0 >2.96 >80 6 – 9 <12
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the lining of a steel ladle: 1) upper slag
zone; 2) lower slag zone; 3) transition layer; 4) metal zone.