1022-7954/05/4108- © 2005 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Russian Journal of Genetics, Vol. 41, No. 8, 2005, pp. 928–931. Translated from Genetika, Vol. 41, No. 8, 2005, pp. 1132–1136.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2005 by Kharkov, Stepanov, Feshchenko, Borinskaya, Yankovsky, Puzyrev.
Analysis of Y-chromosome haplogroups obtained
by genotyping a set of DNA markers of its nonrecom-
bining region is one of the main approaches to studying
the structure of the gene pools of modern populations
and their genetic history . Studies using mtDNA [2,
3] and Y-chromosome [4, 5] markers have demon-
strated that the genetic legacy of the Paleolithic Euro-
pean human population accounts for 80% of the mod-
ern European gene pool, and only 20% of it is the con-
tribution of Neolithic migrants from Near East. The
geographic gradients of haplogroup frequencies in pop-
ulation gene pools reﬂect past migrations differing in
time and direction. To date, detailed analysis of the
genetic structures of various ethnic groups in order to
determine in detail their speciﬁc features seems rele-
vant. In works published during several past years, Y-
chromosome markers were used to study the popula-
tions of Scandinavia , Anatolia , the British Isles
, the Carpathian region , three largest Mediterra-
nean islands , the Caucasus , and other Euro-
pean regions. Some other studies focused on individual
ethnic groups, including Icelanders , Irish ,
Armenians , Saami , and various Finno-Ugric
populations . However, the male gene pool struc-
ture of Eastern European populations, including East-
ern Slavs, has been studied poorly.
We studied the distribution of haplogroups identi-
ﬁed by genotyping 23 biallelic loci of the Y-chromo-
some nonrecombining region (
YAP, 92R7, DYF155S2,
12f2, Tat, M9, M17, M25, M89, M124, M130, M170,
M172, M174, M173, M178, M201, M207, M242,
M269, P21, P25
) in a sample of Belarussians.
The sample consisted of persons that were unrelated to
one another in the paternal line in at least three past
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The material consisted of total DNA isolated from
peripheral blood lymphocytes by a standard method. A
total of 68 blood samples were analyzed.
YAP, 92R7, DYF155S2, 12f2, Tat, M9, M17, M25
were genotyped as described earlier .
Markers M170 and M174 were genotyped via
directly sequencing polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
products obtained by means of an ABI Prism 310 auto-
mated analyzer (Perkin Elmer) with the use of primers
described earlier  and a BigDye Terminator cycle
sequencing kit as recommended by the manufacturer.
The other loci were genotyped using PCR in a Tertsik
thermocycler (DNK-Tekhnologiya) followed by analysis
of the restriction-fragment lengths (for
M173, M178, M207, M242, M269
) or using
allele-speciﬁc PCR (for
M124, M201, P21
Restriction endonucleases and ready-made buffer
solutions were from SibEnzim (Novosibirsk); the reac-
tions were carried out as recommended by the manu-
facturer. All primer sequences were taken from the
nomenclature system  unless indicated otherwise.
Electrophoresis was performed in 3% agarose gel (for
), 10% PAAG (for
2% agarose (for other markers).
Frequencies of Y Chromosome Binary Haplogroups
V. N. Kharkov
, V. A. Stepanov
, S. P. Feshchenko
, S. A. Borinskaya
N. K. Yankovsky
, and V. P. Puzyrev
Institute of Medical Genetics, Tomsk Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, 634050 Russia;
fax: (3822) 22-37-44; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Institute of Hereditary and Congenital Pathology, Minsk, 220053 Belarus; fax: (017) 233-85-13; e-mail: email@example.com
Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 Russia;
fax: (095) 132-89-62; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received March 30, 2004
—The compositions and frequencies of Y-chromosome haplogroups identiﬁed by genotyping 23 bial-
lelic loci of its nonrecombining region (
YAP, 92R7, DYF155S2, 12f2, Tat, M9, M17, M25, M89, M124, M130,
M170, M172, M174, M173, M178, M201, M207, M242, M269, P21, P25
) have been determined in a
sample of 68 Belarussians. Eleven haplogroups have been found in the Belarussian gene pool (E, F*, G, I, I1b,
J2, N3a*, Q*, R1*, R1a1, and R1b3). Haplogroup R1a1 is the most frequent; it includes 46% of all Y chromo-
somes in this sample. The frequencies of haplogroups I1b and I are 17.6 and 7.3%, respectively. Haplogroup
N3a* is the next in frequency. The frequencies of haplogroups E, J2, and R1b3 are 4.4% each; that of R1* is
3%; and those of F*, G, and Q* are 1.5% each.