1063-0740/01/2704- $25.00 © 2001
Russian Journal of Marine Biology, Vol. 27, No. 4, 2001, pp. 227–237.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2001 by Biologiya Morya, Khalaman.
Investigations performed in the 1970s–1980s [9–12]
showed that in the White Sea the development of foul-
ing communities in the upper 5-m water layer takes
place according the scheme described by Scheer .
According the latter, ﬁrst a microperiphyton ﬁlm devel-
ops on clean surfaces introduced into the water. Then a
variable complex of rapidly growing organisms devel-
ops including hydroids, algae, and some ascidians.
These animals and plants prepare the substrate for the
following settlement of bivalve mollusk larvae that
later on develop the climax fouling community. In the
White Sea such a mollusk is the edible mussel
The results of these studies have become a the-
oretical basis for commercial cultivation of this mol-
lusk. Artiﬁcial substrates of a complex structure
(kapron ropes and nets) are installed shortly before the
settlement of mussel larvae. This allows us to avoid the
development of the rapidly growing organisms and
obtain a monoculture of mussels .
However, in the White Sea, on some substrates of
numerous commercial mariculture plants, the develop-
ment of multiannual nonmussel fouling is observed [7,
17]. These facts do not ﬁt into the framework of classi-
cal notions and therefore require detailed investigation.
To determine the direction of succession processes that
take place in the fouling of the White Sea, it is neces-
sary to classify the fouling communities registered
there. The latter problem represents the main goal of
MATERIALS AND METHODS
As the materials for this project we used hydrobio-
logical samples collected in the years 1988–1994 in the
waters of mariculture farms located in the bays and
straits of Chupa Bay (Kandalakshskii Bay):
Nikol’skaya Bay (a plant installed in 1989); Kruglaya
Bay (in 1985 a part of the plant from Krivozerskaya
Bay installed in 1983 was transferred there); Ivanov-
Navolok (installed in 1984); Oborina Salma Bay
(installed in 1990), and also in the area of Sonostrov
Island (installed in 1984) (Fig. 1). In the waters of these
plants other types of fouling, besides the mussels, have
been registered. Altogether 95 hydrobiological samples
have been studied.
The artiﬁcial substrates where the mussels were cul-
tivated are bands of kapron mesh about 20 cm wide and
3 m long or pieces of kapron rope of the same length.
The substrates were installed in the vertical position in
the upper water layer. As samples we collected 10-cm-
long pieces of the substrates with all macroorganisms.
Usually the samples were collected from the parts of
the artiﬁcial substrates that corresponded to the depths
of 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 m. In the samples we determined the
species composition of foulers, their density, and biom-
The formal designation of the fouling communities
was performed using cluster analysis by the method of
weighed mean. As a measure of similarity we used the
coefﬁcients of Sörensen to compare species lists and
the Chekanovskii–Sörensen coefﬁcients to determine
similarities by quantitative data. In the text and tables
the mean values are presented with their standard devi-
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Altogether 71 species of animals and plants have
been found in the fouling of artiﬁcial substrates of mus-
sel mariculture farms (Table 1). The greatest occur-
Fouling Communities of Mussel Aquaculture Installations
in the White Sea
V. V. Khalaman
O.A. Skarlato White Sea Biological Station of the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences,
St. Petersburg, 199034 Russia
Received December 21, 1999
—We have classiﬁed fouling communities developing on artiﬁcial substrates of mussel mariculture
plants in Kandalakshskii Bay of the White Sea. Several major types of fouling have been distinguished: mussel
fouling; fouling similar to the epifauna of the benthos biocenosis of
dominated by the
; young fouling developed by
algae and the ascidians of the genus
; and ecotone communities in-between these types of fouling. The
characteristics of the distinguished communities are provided.
Key words: fouling, communities, mariculture, mussel, Styela rustica