1070-4272/05/7805-0830+2005 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 78, No. 5, 2005, pp. 830 !833. Translated from Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, Vol. 78, No. 5,
2005, pp. 846!850.
Original Russian Text Copyright + 2005 by Uspenskaya, Sirotinkin, Yatsenko, Masik.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Formulations Based on Hollow Glass Spheres
and Polyurethane Foams
M. V. Uspenskaya, N. V. Sirotinkin, S. V. Yatsenko, and I. V. Masik
St. Petersburg State University of Information Technology, Mechanics, and Optics, St. Petersburg, Russia
St. Petersburg State Technological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia
Received September 14, 2004; in final form, March 2005
Abstract-Formulations based on hollow glass spheres and polyurethane foams were obtained and studied.
The positive influence exerted by an inorganic filler, which improves the strength and heat resistance of the
formulations and makes lower the probability of process defects in their application in heat networks and in
building, was examined.
At present, polyurethane foams (PUFs) are rather
well studied materials, which are widely used in vari-
ous areas of science and engineering for more than
50 years. Depending on a particular application field,
PUFs successfully compete with metals, plastics,
rubbers, or other materials .
Rigid PUFs are widely used in world’s building
industry owing to their good characteristics and con-
venience in manufacture and application. The main
requirements to PUF as a construction material are its
heat heat resistance, high softening point, minimum
density combined with high compression and bending
strength, light fastness, and convenience of deposition
by pouring or spraying.
The last achievement in this field is a polyurethane
heat insulation combined with a surface waterproofing
layer , which has such advantages as low thermal
conductivity and density and high reliability during
a prolonged service life.
At the same time, PUFs have a number of disad-
vantages, such as combustibility, necessity for addi-
tional surface protection, poor adhesion to shell ma-
terials, comparatively low compression strength, etc.,
which cannot be eliminated within the existing tech-
At present, intensive studies are being carried out
in order to improve the physicomechanical and work-
ing properties of PUF-based materials. The main ways
to control the properties of both rigid and elastic PUFs
are chemical modification of the raw material used to
obtain PUF and production of various composites .
The strength properties of formulations are largely
determined by the type of filler. The cellular structure
of PUF enables its combination with powdered solid
materials, which improves the physicomechanical
characteristics, diminishes the production cost, and
creates a predictable inhomogeneity in the bulk of
On the whole, the filler is a powerful tool for con-
trolling the service characteristics, which is frequently
used in those cases when the construction resources
of the polymeric matrix are already exhausted. For
example, to impart enhanced strength properties to
a PUF, inorganic fillers with a high strength, such as
sand, concrete, and glass, are introduced into the ma-
terial (mostly into a rigid heat-insulating PUF) .
This also improves the fire safety of the material.
The physicomechanical properties of polyurethanes
can be improved by their filling with a dispersed
quartz filler, with the strongest effect achieved in use
of quartz with organosilicon glaze deposited on its
Table 1 lists data characterizing the basic param-
eters of PUFs and a number of other, most widely
used materials, e.g., those insulating steel heat-transfer
All rigid PUFs used as heat-insulating materials
have low thermal conductivity, the best among other
materials serving for similar purposes . Along with
the advantages of use of filled PUF for heat insula-
tion, there also exist disadvantages: highly filled sys-
tems have a PUF density higher by an order of mag-
nitude, which leads to an increase in the mass of heat
insulation and to a higher thermal conductivity.
This study is devoted to production and study of
formulations based on polyurethanes and hollow