ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2007, Vol. 80, No. 6, pp. 960!964. + Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2007.
Original Russian Text + M.N. Malanin, E. Moeller, P.M. Pakhomov, 2007, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2007, Vol. 80, No. 6,
NANOTECHNOLOGY AND NANOMATERIALS
Formation of the Pore Structure in Xerogel Films
Based on Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight
Polyethylene and Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes
M. N. Malanin, E. Moeller, and P. M. Pakhomov
Tver State University, Tver, Russia
University of Osnabruck, Osnabruck, Germany
Received August 29, 2006; in final form; January 2007
Abstract-The fundamental aspect of the pore structure formation in composite films based on ultra-high-
molecular-weight polyethylene and multiwall carbon nanotubes were studied by IR spectroscopy, mercury
porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry in relation to the degree
Preparation, structural studies, and search for new
applications fields of polymeric composites (in partic-
ular, nanocomposites) are important problems of mod-
ern materials science. Nanotubes receive particular
attention today as a polymer filler. Such fillers, when
added to a polymer, change its structure (often causing
its ordering) and, thus, its properties, such as melting
point, mechanical and thermoelastic characteristics,
diffusion coefficients, etc. Although papers on this
problem have been published [1, 2], data on the struc-
ture and some properties of the polymer composites
with nanotubes in the form of fibers are scarce.
It has been found recently [3, 4] that addition of
some fillers (strontium ferrite, vermiculite, etc.) to
a solution of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene
(UHMWP) increases the porosity of the xerogel struc-
ture, which is of particular importance in synthesis of
highly absorbing materials. The fraction of pores in
a material determines not only its sorption properties,
but also its mechanical characteristics (e.g., strength),
which are impaired at large free volumes in the com-
posite. This dependence should be taken into account
in production of polymeric fibers . Thus, evaluation
of the conditions of the pore structure formation in
the course of preparation of the final material (e.g.,
fibers and films with high strength characteristics) is
a topical problem.
In this study, we examined the formation of
the pore structure in the UHMWP xerogel films in
relation to the concentration of multiwall carbon nano-
tubes as filler.
In the experiments, we used films of UHMWP
xerogels with a molecular weight M
1.7 0 10
with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) .
The average diameter and length of the nanotubes were
20 nm and 5 mm, respectively. The allotropic modifi-
cation of carbon used was purchased from the Carbon
Nano-Material Technology Co., Ltd. (Germany, South
Korea). An electron micrograph of MWCNT is shown
in Fig. 1. The films were prepared as follows. First,
the polymer was dissolved in a solid paraffin and
the filler was added to the true solution obtained.
The resulting heterogeneous system was slowly cooled
Fig. 1. Electron micrograph of MWCNT.