ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2007, Vol. 80, No. 1, pp. 147!151. + Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2007.
Original Russian Text + S.M. Kuz’min, V.V. Kuznetsov, A.M. Kolker, 2007, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2007, Vol. 80, No. 1, pp. 148!151.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Formation of the Diamond-Like Phase in Electric-Arc Synthesis
S. M. Kuz’min, V. V. Kuznetsov, and A. M. Kolker
Institute of Chemistry of Solutions, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ivanovo, Russia
Received April 26, 2006
Abstract-Formation of transparent crystallites embedded in the deposited substrate obtained in a reactor for
arc synthesis of fullerenes was studied. An X-ray diffraction analysis of the substrate was made.
The interest in mono- and polycrystalline diamond-
like materials is due to their unique properties.
The materials are synthesized both by chemical vapor
deposition onto a hot (80031200 K) support and by
structural transformation of carbon under conditions
of high temperature and pressure. Fullerene molecules
can be used as a starting carbon material in both the
first and second approaches to synthesis of diamond-
like structures [1, 2].
The aim of our study was to examine processes
in which various kinds of carbon are formed in arc
sputtering of a graphite rod and to find the conditions
necessary for a diamond-like structure to be produced.
An uncooled metallic support 1 was mounted
in a reactor for electric-arc synthesis of fullerenes
(Fig. 1) at a distance of 1310 cm from the arc. We
used as electrodes rectangular graphite rods of length
10 cm and 20 4to40 6 mm in cross section. The elec-
trodes were annealed by passing dc current of 503
70 A through short-circuited electrodes for 8310 h
at a residual pressure in the reactor on the order of
Pa or in a helium atmosphere. The working pres-
sure of 2 010
Pa provides the maximum yield of
fullerenes for the given reactor. In the curse of sput-
tering, the arc current was 1003150 A at a voltage
across the discharge gap equal to 20325 V. The com-
pletion of the sputtering process was judged by visual
The substrate deposited on the support was exam-
ined by X-ray diffraction analysis and micropho-
tography. The X-ray diffraction analysis was made on
a DRON-UM1 X-ray diffractometer (MoK
monochromated with a Zr filter) modified for work
with substances in condensed and polycrystalline
states, with the possibility of obtaining X-ray diffrac-
tion patterns at diffraction angles q of 1o350o by the
Fig. 1. Schematic of the experimental setup: (1) support,
(2) reflector, (3) cooling circuit, (4) graphite rods, (5) mi-
crolift, (6) vacuum bell, (7) vacuum pump unit, (8) vacuum
gage, (9) leak, (10) discharge power supply, (11) voltmeter,
(12) ammeter, (13) current-lead rod, (14) microlift power
supply, (15) vacuum cock, and (16) cylinder with helium.