ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2014, Vol. 87, No. 9, pp. 1210−1216. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2014.
Original Russian Text © A.A. Komlev, I.I. Bachigina, A.V. Pokrovskii, M.A. Ishchenko, E.F. Vilezhaninov, 2014, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2014,
Vol. 87, No. 9, pp. 1214−1220.
INORGANIC SYNTHESIS AND INDUSTRIAL
Formation of Barium Titanate in Combustion
of Heterogeneous Condensed Systems
A. A. Komlev, I. I. Bachigina, A. V. Pokrovskii, M. A. Ishchenko, and E. F. Vilezhaninov
St. Petersburg State Technological Institute (Technical University), Moskovskii pr. 26, St. Petersburg, 190013 Russia
Received October 14, 2014
Abstract—Highly dispersed BaTiO
powders with average crystallite size of 41 nm were produced by combustion
–X (reducing agent) formulations. A thermodynamic analysis of these formulations was used to
determine the basic component ratios for performing the synthesis. The inﬂ uence exerted by the type of a reducing
agent and dispersity of barium nitrate on the phase composition of the powders being formed was experimentally
determined. The suggested method distinguished by energy independence, high synthesis rate, and high yield of
the product can serve as a basis for industrial manufacture of highly dispersed barium titanate powders.
Owing to their ferroelectric properties, materials based
on compounds with a perovskite-like structure have
found wide use in electronic industries as piezoelectric
transducers, actuating mechanisms, insulators, multilayer
ceramic capacitors, and pyroelectric IR sensors [1–7].
Barium titanate (BaTiO
) is among the most demanded
compounds of this class.
The existing industrial solid-phase methods for
obtaining barium titanate (of titanyl-oxalate and
peroxide types) have a common disadvantage: high
energy consumption due to the long time required for
calcination at 700–1350°C . Fast-synthesis methods
are much more promising because fast reactions strongly
intensify solid-phase processes . The following
methods have been considered as synthesis techniques
in studies concerned with how barium titanate powders
are formed: sol-gel method ; hydrothermal synthesis
[5, 6]; mechanochemical synthesis ; and synthesis in
molten salts, in which barium nitrate is decomposed at
low temperature to give barium titanate by the reaction
+ 0.5 N
+ 0.5 O
In addition, considerable attention has been given to
syntheses of oxide powders of various compositions by an
exothermic oxidation reaction , as, e.g., the method
of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis  or
“solution combustion” [13–15].
Being a self-sustained fast exothermic process in
which substances are transformed within a narrow
high-temperature zone of the combustion wave, the
combustion of heterogeneous condensed systems 
makes it possible to obtain synthetic materials  in the
conditions of high-rate heating and cooling, which can
hinder the agglomeration of highly dispersed condensed
products. The synthesis under these conditions is energy
independent and occurs at rates comparable with the
combustion rate of stating formulations, 0.01–20
An undeniable advantage of this method is in the
compactness and simplicity of the apparatus used.
In principle, the composition of the gas phase formed
in high-temperature decomposition of Ba(NO
furnishes an opportunity to organize self-sustaining
exothermic oxidation processes, i.e., combustion:
– 282 kJ (1)
To carry out the process, it is necessary to include
a reducing agent (henceforth fuel) into the Ba(NO
system. As regards the economical feasibility, it
is advisable to use accessible compounds as the fuel.