Sex Roles [sers] pp435-sers-370083 March 7, 2002 19:22 Style ﬁle version Nov. 19th, 1999
Sex Roles, Vol. 45, Nos. 7/8, October 2001 (
For Crying Out Loud—The Differences
Persist into the ’90s
William K. Lombardo, Gary A. Cretser,
and Scott C. Roesch
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
The relation of gender to crying was investigated over a 15-year interval.
The 1996 sample was composed of 523 undergraduates (293 females and
230 males). Forty percent of the sample described themselves as Asian, 32%
Anglo, 19% Hispanic, and 7% African American. There were extreme sim-
ilarities between the 1981 and 1996 samples in terms of reported frequency
and intensity of crying and the gender patterning of crying behavior across
stimulus situations. In the later sample, gender role orientation (as measured
by the BSRI) was found to be associated with crying. Neither ethnicity nor so-
cioeconomic status was signiﬁcantly related to any of the variables examined.
It may be that crying has not been signiﬁcantly affected by changing gender
role expectations in the last 15 years.
KEY WORDS: emotion; crying; gender; androgyny.
In the last decade it has been commonly noted that there have been sig-
niﬁcant changes in gender role stereotypes, expectations, and behaviors. It
is well documented that women have moved into the workplace and men
have turned toward more involvement in fatherhood and family. For exam-
ple, Tavris notes (1999, p. 3) “men’s participation in household chores and
childcare has been rising steadily, as shown both in community surveys and
family studies (Barnett & Rivers, 1996; Coontz, 1997; Stacey, 1996).” Tavris
was moved to ask recently (1999, p. 4), “why, in spite of incontrovertible
evidence about the rapid changes in gender roles and behavior, do so many
people like to think the sexes are opposite and unchanging?”
To whom correspondence should be addressed at Behavioral Sciences Department, California
State Polytechnic University, Pomona, 3801 West Temple Avenue, Pomona, California 91768;
2002 Plenum Publishing Corporation