The following aspects of flatfish skin coloration are reviewed. (1) The variety of chromatophores which contribute to the complex integumentary patterns; their relative sizes and numerical distribution. (2) Interspecific variations and intraspecific changes in skin patterns. (3) Ambicolouration and hypomelanosis and their economic consequences. Discussion of nutrition, illumination, stress, endocrine and paracrine factors which may influence both these phenomena, as well as the normal pattern morphology, including putative melanogenesis stimulating and inhibitory factors within the integument. (4) Cryptic responses to substrate texture and colour, as well as to stressors, involving chromatophore morphological and physiological chromatic interaction. (5) Regulation of pattern changes; the simultaneous production by a single neurone type (adrenergic) of both paling and darkening in different pattern areas through variations in “adrenoceptor transition ranges”.
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries – Springer Journals
Published: May 24, 2009
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