Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 74, No. 1, 2001, pp. 175 3177. Translated from Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, Vol. 74, No. 1, 2001, pp. 169 3171. Original Russian Text Copyright C 2001 by Morachevskii, Bashenko. HISTORY OF CHEMISTRY ˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝ ˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝˝ AND CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY First Studies in the Field of Fixation of Atmospheric Nitrogen in Russia (Experiments of A.I. Gorbov and V.F. Mitkevich in 190631912) The only sources of fixed nitrogen in the late XIX3early XX century were natural Chile saltpeter (sodium nitrate) and ammonia obtained in very limited amounts as a by-product of coal carbonization. Chile, a relatively small state, supplied saltpeter to, in fact, all the world’s countries. No major deposits of salt- peter were known in any other region. Chile saltpeter was used to manufacture nitric acid and served as fertilizer. A steady production of nitric acid in Russia was of interest for the Russian military. The agriculture needed fertilizers. The agrarian re- forms started in 1906 gave rise to higher demand for fertilizers. For example, during the period from 1906 till 1912, the overall consumption of mineral fertili- zers in Russia increased from 7.6 to 35.3 million poods (1 pood = 16 kg). The use of
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 13, 2004
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