Firm Siz and Efficiency in Inovation: Reply

Firm Siz and Efficiency in Inovation: Reply Firm Size and Efficiency A. J. Menkveld in Innovation: Reply A. R. Thurik Economic activity moved away from large firms us with four more reasons as to why this shift has to small, predominantly young firms in the 1970s occurred: the increase of labour supply; changes and 1980s. Acs and Audretsch (1993) and in consumer tastes; relaxation of (entry) regula- Carlsson (1992) show evidence of manufacturing tions and the fact that we are in a period of industries in countries in varying stages of creative destruction. Loveman and Sengenberger economic development Carlsson mentions two (1991) stress the influence of two trends of indus- explanations for this shift. The first deals with fun- trial restructuring: that of decentralisation and damental changes in the world economy from the vertical disintegration of large companies and that 1970s onwards. These changes relate to the of the formation of new business communities. increase of global competition, the rising degree Furthermore they emphasize the role of public and of uncertainty and the growth in market fragmen- private policies promoting the small business tation. The second deals with changes in the sector. character of technological progress. He shows that The question whether this change of the Small Business Economics Springer Journals

Firm Siz and Efficiency in Inovation: Reply

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Kluwer Academic Publishers
Copyright © 1999 by Kluwer Academic Publishers
Business and Management; Management; Microeconomics; Entrepreneurship; Industrial Organization
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