ISSN 10630740, Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 2010, Vol. 36, No. 6, pp. 413–418. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.
Original Russian Text © N.N. Slinkina, M.V. Pivkin, O.V. Polokhin, 2010, published in Biologiya Morya.
The presence of submarine soils has been already
suggested by V.V. Dokuchaev, who regards lake and
river alluvium as soil . Studies of submarine soils in
the Russian Far East began in 1994 in Peter the Great
Bay, Sea of Japan .
The role of soil fungi in the biogeocenoses is well
known. The submarinesoil fungi have been much less
studied in this respect. Along with the fungi of subma
rine soils proper, the fungi from estuarine substrates,
soils beneath mangrove vegetation, marsh soils, and
maritime bog soils are also referred to this group (a
group of Thalassosols types) [15, 16]. This paper pre
sents the results of the study of fungal assemblages
from submarine soils of Sakhalin Gulf.
Sakhalin Gulf is a unique natural ecosystem, where
conditions are determined by its boundary position
with the mouth area of the Amur River. Due to river
runoff, a mixing of riverine and marine water occurs
in the gulf, thus accounting for the high variability of
marine environmental parameters in this region .
Via river runoff the gulf receives nutrients and organic
substances, including various pollutants, which accu
mulate in the nearbottom layer and have a direct or
indirect effect on aquatic organisms. River runoff also
influences the composition of filamentous fungi,
which are, as a rule, represented by terrigenous species
in such habitats. A number of studies dealing with the
mycobiota of freshwater bodies have shown the high
adaptation and functional activity of terrigenous spe
cies in the aquatic environment .
Micromycetes are very sensitive to environmental
changes and anthropogenic influences and respond by
changes in the abundance and species composition of
fungal assemblages. Under anthropogenic influences
abundant development of keratophilic and dermato
phytic species of fungi occurs in the aquatic environ
ment, including submarine soils [27, 28].
This study is aimed at determining the species
composition of filamentous fungi from submarine
soils of the Sakhalin Gulf and a comparative analysis
of the fungal assemblages of the Amur River plume
and the western part of the gulf.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The material for this study was samples of subma
rine soils collected on the 29th cruise of the R/V
(2003) in Sakhalin Gulf. A total of
12 submarine soil samples were examined. Samples
were taken from 13–54 m depths using a Van Veen bot
tom grab, placed in sterile polyethylene bags and kept
in a refrigerator at –18°C.
Fungi were isolated on agarized media according to
generally accepted procedures , using the Waxman
method of serial dilutions . Media prepared with
sea water were used for the isolation and cultivation of
fungi, viz., agarized sediment broth, wort agar, potato
carrot medium, and Chapek’s medium. All media
were sterilized with saturated vapor at a pressure of
0.5 atm (112°C) for 30 min. The antibiotics penicillin
and streptomycin (0.5 g each) were added to suppress
Species identification was performed using identi
fication keys and original papers [2, 3, 5, 9, 17–19,
21–26]. The taxonomic position was determined
according to the 9th edition of
Filamentous Fungi of the Submarine Soils
of the Sakhalin Gulf (Sea of Okhotsk)
N. N. Slinkina
, M. V. Pivkin
, and O. V. Polokhin
Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, 690022 Russia
Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630099 Russia
Received March 25, 2010
—This study examines the biodiversity of submarinesoil filamentous fungi in Sakhalin Gulf for the
first time. A total of 82 species of fungi belonging to 35 genera were isolated and identified. Of these, repre
sentatives of Anamorphic fungi were predominant. All species identified were facultative marine fungi, except
, which was known until now only from marine habitats. The qualitative and quantita
tive structure of submarinesoil fungal assemblages of the eastern part (Amur River plume) and the western
part (continental shelf) of Sakhalin Gulf was studied.
: Facultative marine fungi, submarine soils, fungal assemblages, anthropogenic pressure.