1063-0740/05/3106- © 2005 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Russian Journal of Marine Biology, Vol. 31, No. 6, 2005, pp. 382–385.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2005 by Biologiya Morya, Zvereva, Vysotskaya.
The pattern of relationships between microscopic
fungi and macroscopic organisms is determined by the
physiological characteristics of the fungi and the condi-
tion of the immune systems of the host. Thus, opportu-
nistic ﬁlamentous fungi can cause infectious diseases,
if the host is senescent or suffers from any other condi-
tion of immunodeﬁciency. In turn, the immune system
of a macrobiont is directly affected by the condition of
the surrounding natural environment. It is known that
the species diversity of the biota reduces in biotopes,
both marine and terrestrial, polluted with industrial or
domestic sewage , including the species diversity of
ﬁlamentous fungi , due to the extinction of rare
stenobiontic species. The proportion of stenobiontic
polysaprobic species increases in the structure of the
biota, including opportunistic and toxigenic microor-
ganisms. An analysis of the structure of the complex of
ﬁlamentous fungi on marine grounds in polluted
coastal waters of Peter the Great Bay corroborates this
tendency [6, 10]. However, there is no information
about the taxonomic composition of ﬁlamentous fungi
and their distribution in the internal organs of bivalve
mollusks from areas prone to pollution.
Bivalve mollusks are very important objects of
marine ﬁshery and aquaculture and are used in the food
industry and for medical, preventative health care, and
other commercial purposes. In this connection, studies
on pathogenic and toxigenic fungi inhabiting the inter-
nal organs of commercially important and cultivated
mollusks are necessary for successful development of
maricultural farms and safe usage of mollusks for food.
The goal of this project was to study the taxonomic
composition of ﬁlamentous fungi associated with the
inhabiting polluted biotopes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The bivalve mollusks
(Dunker, 1853) and
1758) (Molluska: Bivalvia) were collected in Desant-
naya Bay located in the western part of Ussuriiskii Bay,
in July 2002, at a depth of 6 m. The bottom in the bay
is constituted of silted sand and pebble with a mosaic
distribution of algal thickets. This water area is prone to
sewage runoff from the dumpsite of industrial and
domestic wastes (Gornostai Bay) .
, the Paciﬁc mussel, an Asian Paciﬁc
low boreal species, is one of the most common species
of marine mollusks in the Russian Far East. It is the
largest member of the family Mytilidae, reaching
200 mm long and 85 mm high. The Paciﬁc mussel has
been ﬁshed for more than 60 years .
horse mussel, is a cold-water amphiboreal species
reaching 50–80 mm long and 49 mm high. For analysis,
we chose adult specimens, which were stored, up to the
time of mycological inspection, in a deep freezer, at a
temperature of –18
C. Isolated internal organs, the
Filamentous Fungi Associated with Bivalve Mollusks
from Polluted Biotopes of Ussuriiskii Bay, Sea of Japan
L. V. Zvereva and M. A. Vysotskaya
Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, 690041 Russia
Received May 4, 2005
—We have studied for the ﬁrst time the taxonomic composition of ﬁlamentous fungi associated with
the bivalve mollusks
(Bunker, 1853) and
(Linnaeus, 1758), col-
lected in polluted biotopes of Ussuriiskii Bay (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan). One hundred ﬁfty-ﬁve strains
of higher fungi were isolated, and 35 species of ﬁlamentous fungi were identiﬁed. Out of these, 28 species were
anamorphous fungi of the genera
(3) (Deuteromycota), and 7 were species of the genera
(1) (Ascomycota). Twenty-four species of ﬁlamentous fungi were isolated from the internal organs
: 8 from the muscles, 8 from the hepatopancreas, 6 from the female gonads, 4 from the mantle,
3 from the kidneys and male gonads, and 1 from the gills. Twenty-one species of ﬁlamentous fungi were iso-
lated from the internal organs of
: 10 from the muscles, 6 from the hepatopancreas, 5 from
the female gonads, 3 from the kidneys, 3 from the mantle, and 1 from the gills. The bulk of the isolated species
of the genera
Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium
were pathogenic and toxigenic fungi.
ﬁlamentous fungi, Ascomycota, Deuteromycota, bivalve mollusks, Ussuriiskii Bay.