FEATURES OF MECHANOCHEMICAL SYNTHESIS OF TUNGSTEN AND
TITANIUM CARBIDES WITH PARTICIPATION OF NATURAL GRAPHITE
V. P. Reva
and D. V. Onishchenko
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 10, pp. 39 – 44, October, 2012.
Original article submitted August 15, 2012.
It is established that the ash content of natural graphite is the main limiting factor in implementing mechano
chemical synthesis of titanium carbide in the system Ti–C
and tungsten carbide in the system WO
The promising nature of using a carbon black composition + natural graphite for reducing sulfur content in ti
tanium carbide prepared by mechanochemical synthesis is demonstrated.
Keywords: mechanical activation, titanium carbide, tungsten carbide, mechanochemical synthesis, graphite
ash content, carbon composition, degree of aromaticity.
Tungsten and titanium carbides are refractory, and they
exhibit high hardness, wear resistance, and heat resistance.
WC and TiC are within the composition of hard alloys used
for manufacturing cutters, drill bits, and tools for non-de-
structive treatment of metals. Apart from high hardness,
tungsten carbide has unique properties: high melting temper-
ature and wear resistance, good thermal shock resistance,
and oxidation resistance . Titanium carbide due to high
hardness, heat resistance, and high-temperature strength, is
used for manufacturing turbine blades of jet aero engines and
application of protective coatings to rocket nozzles and nose
Tungsten and titanium carbides used extensively in tech
nology are prepared by performing solid-phase reaction. It is
distinguished by comparative simplicity of performing the
process, and the possibility of carrying out reaction in the ab
sence of solvents. However, the rate of a solid-phase during
thermal activation is slow, since it is determined by the rate
of diffusion processes. Mechanical activation considerably
accelerates chemical reaction between solid reagents . To
a considerable extent this relates to mechanochemical syn
thesis, with which solid-phase reaction occurs directly during
mechanical activation of starting components.
Recently a whole series of refractory compounds has
been prepared by means of mechanochemical synthesis, in
cluding carbides, although the mechanism of their formation
has hardly been studied. There has been inadequate study of
the effect of external factors on mechanochemical reaction
initiation, and criteria limiting realization of synthesis in the
presence of different carbon agents have not been determined
[4 – 6].
Results are provided in this article for a study of produc-
tion aspects of mechanochemical synthesis for titanium and
tungsten carbides, realized in the presence of natural graphite.
Titanium carbide synthesis was accomplished in accor
dance with the reaction
Titanium was used in the form of powder grade PTÉS-2
with a fineness of 150 – 200 mm and purity of 99.8%. Car
bon-containing material used was natural graphite with an
ash content of not more than 1% and degree of aromaticity
= 5.2, carbon black grade PM-15, and also activated car
bon for medicinal purposes produced by AOA Medisorb
(Perm’), OAO Farmstndart-leksredstva (Kursk), OAO
Uralbiofarm (Ekaterinburg), and OAO Chemical Pharma
ceutical Plant (Irbit). Graphite and carbon black PM-15 were
previously dried at 150°C for 3 h, and activated carbon was
used in an as-supplied condition. The degree of aromaticity
for activated carbon was from 58.9 (OAO Medisorb) to 63.5
(OAO Chemical Pharmaceutical Plant).
Composites were prepared from graphite and carbon
black PM-15 containing from 5 to 90 wt.% graphite. Calcu
lation of components for mechanochemical synthesis was
carried out proceeding from stoichiometry TiC
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 53, No. 5, January, 2013
1083-4877/13/05305-0330 © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York
FGAOU VPO Far-Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.