FEATURES OF DENSE BED MOVEMENT
IN A SHAFT FURNACE REACTOR
N. A. Tyutin
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 2, pp. 34 – 37, February, 2007.
Original article submitted November 15, 2006.
The construction of a shaft furnace reactor is considered with temperature regimes for the working medium,
the dense bed and the lining. Attention is drawn to possible changes in the operating reactor channel cross sec
tion and profile. Nonisothermal movement of the dense bed in the reactor is analyzed and its features are noted
in relation to the ratios of the dense bed and channel cross sections.
The main element of a shaft furnace is its reactor whose
operating space is a vertical channel of predominantly circu-
lar cross section. The reactor construction consists of a re-
fractory lining and a steel case over whose height there are
three heat-engineering zones: A, B, C. The product being
treated in the reactor channel moves as a dense bed under the
action of gravitation in a counterflow with the working me-
dium  that in the reactor is combustion products of hydro-
carbon fuel, atmospheric air and mixtures of them. The heat
treatment of a product in each zone and in the whole reactor
is specified by temperature regimes of the working medium
and the dense bed. A diagram of a reactor with the tempera
ture regimes is provided in Fig. 1. The dense bed regime is
provided by the regime of the working medium as a result of
heat exchange in the counterflow between the working me
dium and the dense bed. Both temperature regimes, working
medium and dense bed, are not steady-state. The reactor
lining is specified by its temperature regime that is also de
termined by the working medium regime. In contrast to the
working medium and dense bed regimes, the temperature re
gime of the lining is steady-state and it has an effect on the
cross section of the reactor channel.
Levels of temperature regimes for the dense bed and the
internal surface of the lining in channel cross sections over
the whole height of the reactor have almost the same values.
The level of the temperature regime for the dense bed is
higher than the average value of the level of the temperature
regime for the lining, determining temperature changes of
the channel cross section. During reactor operation the
cylindrical channel with an initial diameter of cross section
, uniform over its whole height, under the action of a
steady lining temperature regime may be converted into an
expanding or contracting channel, any cross section of which
will have a its own fixed dimension, D
The expanding channel will consist in zones A and B of
conically expanding parts, and in zone C of a conically con-
tracting part in the dense bed movement direction. The sizes
of the cross sections of the expanding parts are greater than
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 48, No. 1, 2007
1083-4877/07/4801-0043 © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Eastern Institute of Refractories Research and Production Asso
ciation (VOSTIO), Russia.
Fig. 1. Reactor layout and temperature regimes: 1, reactor; 2, work
ing medium temperature regime; 3, dense bed; T, temperature; A, B,
C, heat-engineering zones; OP, original product; FP, finished pro
duct; TM, treated working medium; FA , fuel and air; CA, cooling air.