FEATURES OF COMPACTION AND PHASE FORMATION
IN THE Ti–Si–C SYSTEM DURING PLASMA-ARC SINTERING
V. N. Antsiferov,
M. N. Kachenyuk,
and A. A. Smetkin
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 4, pp. 16 – 19, April 2015.
Original article submitted November 27, 2014.
Results are given for a study of compaction and phase formation in a mechanically activated powder system
based on titanium, silicon carbide, and carbon with different plasma-arc sintering parameters. It is shown that
plasma-arc sintering of mechanically activated 3Ti–1.25SiC–0.75C mixture in a molar ratio at 1300°C pro
vides formation of dense material containing the maximum amount of titanium carbosilicide. The consoli
dated material consists of lamellar structure Ti
and microcrystalline Ti
Keywords: titanium carbosilicide, plasma-arc sintering, phase formation, structure, hardness.
The contemporary level of development of technology
promotes evermore complex specifications for materials op-
erating under high-temperature and pressure conditions, high
vacuum, and materials with a layered structure are currently
considered as the most suitable alternative for wear-resistant
metal alloys and coatings. A new and promising functional
material for preparing objects and components subject to in
tense wear during operation is titanium carbosilicide Ti
exhibiting a layered structure and as a result of this unusually
Titanium carbosilicide has properties of both ceramic
and metal. Similarly to metal it exhibits electrical and ther
mal conductivity, workability, high Young’s modulus, and re
sistance to thermal shock and high temperature. Also ternary
titanium carbosilicide replicates some ceramic properties:
good oxidation resistance up to 1400°C, relatively low den
sity (~4.52 g/cm
) and high (~1700°C) oxidation tempera
ture. The most detailed description of physicomechanical
and chemical properties has been presented by Barsoum, et
al, [1 – 5].
Quite a considerable amount of research is aimed re
cently at studying various methods for mechanical activation
and consolidation of powder composites in order to prepare
composite materials based on Ti
[6 – 11]. Examples of
the starting mixes are also versions such as TiH
Ti/Si/C, Ti/SiC/C, Ti/Si/TiC, and TiC/Si.
The aim of this research involves studying compaction
and phase formation of a mechanically-activated mix of
Ti–SiC–C composition with plasma-arc sintering.
STARTING MATERIALS AND PROCEDURE
Titanium powder TPP-7 fraction <0.325 mm, commer
cial grade silicon carbide powder <10 mm, and graphite pow
der C-1, were used as a basis for preparing titanium
carbosilicide materials. Charge mechanical activation was
achieved in a Sand planetary mill with a rotation frequency
of 280 min
in a vacuum (P < 10 Pa) for 3 h. The ratio of
grinding body weight and material being treated was 7.5:1.0.
Fittings made from titanium were used in order to exclude
material contamination during grinding.
Plasma-arc sintering of powder composites was per
formed in a Dr Sinter SPS-1050b unit in a graphite die, and
material being treated was separated from graphite fittings
by molybdenum foil. Temperature varied within the limits
1200 – 1300°C, isothermal soaking was for 1, 5, and 25 min,
and the pressure was 30 MPa. Temperature was measured by
a pyrometer at the outer side of the graphite die, wrapped in
graphite felt in order to reduce heat losses and temperature
variation. Average heating rate was 80 °C/min. The value of
current for specimens 20 mm in diameter was 1100 – 1300 A
depending on final sintering temperature.
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 56, No. 2, July, 2015
1083-4877/15/05602-0168 © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York
FGBOU VPO Perm’ National Research Polytechnic University,