ISSN 1063-0740, Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 2006, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 214–222. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2006.
Original Russian Text © E.E. Kostina, A.P. Tsurpalo, L.T. Frolova, 2006, published in Biologiya Morya.
The sea anemone
is a widespread
Paciﬁc boreal species. It inhabits Peter the Great Bay
, the east coast of Hokkaido Isl. [28, 29], Shantar Isl.
and Tauiskaya Guba in the Sea of Okhotsk, Kuriles [1,
3, 6, 23, 24], Kamchatka , the Aleutian Islands ,
and the southeast part of Alaska .
has been described in many works [14,
15, 16, 25, 27, 28]. There are data on keeping
in an aquarium , but almost nothing is known
about the biology of that species in the natural environ-
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Samples of the sea anemone
(family Condylanthidae) taken from the littoral of
Tserkovnaya, Krabovaya, Galtsev, and Dimitrov bays
(Shikotan Isl.) in July 1989 were used as the material.
The standard trophological parameters, nutrition spec-
trum, index of gastrovascular cavity ﬁlling, frequency
of occurrence, index of trophic signiﬁcance, and com-
ponent ratio of food boluses were determined in 166
individuals. As it was impossible to ﬁnd gonads in most
individuals at macroscopic examination, cross and lon-
gitudinal histological sections at various levels of the
column were prepared. The animals were ﬁxed by 40%
ethanol, dehydrated, and embedded in parafﬁn. Parafﬁn
m thick were stained by Carazzi hematox-
ylin and studied under light microscope. In all, 92 sea
anemones were analyzed.
The sea anemone
of the common species of the littoral macrobenthos of
the Northwest Paciﬁc (Table 1), though it can live in the
upper sublittoral also. At a small biomass, the popula-
tion density of that species reached several hundred
individuals per square meter. The maximum population
density, reaching 1910 ind./m
, was recorded in hydro-
thermal areas containing hydrogen sulﬁde. In the lit-
inhabits mid and lower layers (in pits
and clefts), preferring silt-sand bottoms with small
boulders, pebbles, and gravel. The sea anemone is an
infaunal species. Being attached by a pedal disk to
rocky surfaces laying under layer of soft ground, the
animals borrow in it, leaving outside only the oral disk
with tentacles. In the
nity, they can attach to rhizomes of plants.
Features of morphology.
The live body of
has a worm-shaped form, smooth, with no parti-
tion into departments; places of mesentery attachment
are observed easily through the thin walls. Basilar mus-
cles are available. The column is usually of a light
brown or yellow–grey color, the tentacles have a brown
shade and white longitudinal strips. At Hokkaido
Island, the sea anemones were of a pinkish color ,
and animals with pale orange coloration of the body
occurred in Galtsev Bay. The body height of most indi-
viduals is 1.5–2.5 cm, the diameter is 3–5 mm, the
height of the largest sea anemones reached 5 cm. The
actinostome is surrounded by two siphonoglyphs. The
number of tentacles of larger individuals is about 50
and approximately corresponds to the number of
mesenteries (Table 2). The mesenteries are distin-
guished into macro- and microcnemes arranged in
Features of Biology of the Sea Anemone
1902 (Actiniaria: Condylanthidae) from the Northwest Pacific
E. E. Kostina, A. P. Tsurpalo, and L. T. Frolova
Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, 690041 Russia
Received October 28, 2005
—The ﬁrst data on features of the biology of the sea anemone
, which is widespread
in the Northwest Paciﬁc, were obtained. That species, inhabiting the littoral of Shikotan Isl. (the Minor Kurile
Ridge), belongs by its trophological attributes to nonselective deposit feeders. Animals swallow soil together
with the organisms in it, not separating mineral particles from organic ones. Populations of
presented by individuals of mail and female sex, however the females prevailed in number. Hermaphrodites and
evidence of sex change were not revealed in that species. Females were in the postspawning condition in all
settlements. Spermatogenic cells of the new generation at two stages of development were recorded in males.
, trophological attributives, sexual state, habitat, morphology.