1063-0740/05/3104- © 2005 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Russian Journal of Marine Biology, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2005, pp. 209–214.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2005 by Biologiya Morya, Khodakovskaya.
Peter the Great Bay is one of the largest bays in the
Sea of Japan. It is located in the northwestern part of the
Sea of Japan, close to the border between boreal and
subtropical waters. The open part of the bay is subject
to the cooling effects of the cold Primorskoe Current,
whereas extensive shallow water areas are warmed well
in summer time. Due to these phenomena, the bay is
inhabited by both cold-water boreal-arctic species and
warm-loving subtropical species.
The ﬁrst data about the sponge fauna of Peter the
Great Bay were published in a paper by the British spon-
giologist M. Burton , who was asked to identify a
collection of sponges sampled in 1925–1931 in the Sea
of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan by expeditions of the
State Hydrological Institute carried out under the general
supervision of K.M. Deryugin. Later on, this information
was critically revised, supplemented, and incorporated
into the monographs of V.M. Koltun [3, 4].
In the 1960s, expeditions of the Zoological Institute
of the Soviet Academy of Sciences studied in detail the
upper horizons of the subtidal zone (down to 22 m
deep) in Pos’eta Bay, the most southwestern part of
Peter the Great Bay . The book
Zhivotnye i rasteniya
zaliva Petra Velikogo
published in 1976 presents infor-
mation about only ﬁve common species of sponges .
In 1998, a catalogue of biota of Peter the Great Bay was
published  including 22 species of sponges from the
order Demospongiae. Recently, information was pub-
lished about the calcareous sponges of this bay . The
data about sponges of Peter the Great Bay published in
the listed papers are sometimes conﬂicting and need
validation and speciﬁcation.
The aim of this study was to perform an inventory of
sponge fauna in Peter the Great Bay and to analyze the
biogeographical composition and vertical distribution
of this fauna.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The author examined all sponges collected in differ-
ent areas of Peter the Great Bay and deposited in the
Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sci-
ences (St. Petersburg) and the Institute of Marine Biol-
ogy, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences
(Vladivostok). As a result, 10 species of sponges have
been added to the list. One species,
(Miklucho-Maclay, 1870) (=
has been excluded from the list, as it was not found in
the bay. The taxonomical identiﬁcation of the sponges
was performed using preparations of isolated spicules
and sections of the body. To identify sponges that have
no skeleton (
sp.), we examined histological
preparations made using standard techniques and
stained with hematoxylin–eosin. In the biogeographical
analysis we used the traditional approach accepted in
the Russian literature [2, 7, 8, etc.]. To distinguish geo-
graphical ranges, we used both original and literature
data about the ﬁndings of certain species. In analyzing
the distribution of sponges in depths and substrates, we
mostly used the data from the collection labels supple-
mented by reliable information from the literature.
THE FAUNA OF SPONGES
Altogether 40 sponge species have been registered
in Peter the Great Bay belonging to 27 genera, 19 fam-
ilies, 9 orders, and 2 classes (Table 1). For the sake of
convenience, we presented in the table all names of the
species and subspecies mentioned by other authors.
The following abbreviations have been used in
(WP ST) Western Paciﬁc (Asian Paciﬁc)
subtropical species, distributed along Asian coasts from
the line Wonsan (Korea)—Sado Island—Inubo Cape
(Japan) to the Yellow Sea and Kyushu Island; (AP ST)
Amphipaciﬁc subtropical species, distributed along the
Fauna of Sponges (Porifera) of Peter the Great Bay,
Sea of Japan
A. V. Khodakovskaya
Institute of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, 690041 Russia
Received October 21, 2004
—A complete list of sponges of Peter the Great Bay (northwestern Sea of Japan) is presented com-
prising 40 species belonging to 27 genera, 19 families, 9 orders, and 2 classes. Information is presented about
the biogeographical composition of sponge fauna of the bay, the depths of their habitats, and their substrates.
sponges, fauna, Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan.