Population Research and Policy Review 18: 545–561, 1999.
© 1999 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.
Family planning program effects on contraceptive use in
D. R. HOTCHKISS
, A. LAKSSIR
C. S. FLORENCE
Tulane University, New Orleans, USA;
Ministry of Public Health, Morocco
Abstract. This study illustrates the use of panel data and a ﬁxed-effects estimator to invest-
igate the impact of family planning program inputs on contraceptive utilization in Morocco
during the 1992–1995 period. By controlling the potential bias resulting from common un-
observed determinants of program resource allocation decisions and program outcomes, the
methodology helps overcome an important constraint to the use of non-experimental study
designs in undertaking meaningful impact assessments. Data from a panel of women inter-
viewed in both the 1992 and 1995 Morocco Demographic and Health Surveys were used
in the study, along with ‘program’ data from Service Availability Modules undertaken in
conjunction with each survey round. The results indicate that changes in the family planning
supply environment, in particular increased presence of nurses trained in family planning and
the level of infrastructure at public clinics, played a signiﬁcant role in the increased use of
modern contraceptives during the study period.
Keywords: Contraceptive use, Family planning programs, Morocco, Quality, Supply environ-
Do organized family planning programs hasten the transition from high to
low fertility and, if so, what is the magnitude of their contribution to fertility
decline vis-à-vis other determinants of societal fertility levels (e.g., levels of
infant mortality, socioeconomic development, education, etc.)? These ques-
tions have long been the subject of debate in the international population
community (see Bongaarts 1994, 1995; Knowles et al. 1994; Pritchett 1994
for recent contributions to this debate). In recent years, the question of effect-
iveness of family planning and other social-sector interventions in developing
country settings has become more than an academic question, as policy-
makers, legislators, and the international donor community have increasingly
sought information on the relative effectiveness of programs competing for
scarce resources to guide resource allocation decisions.