Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, Vol. 17, No. 1, January 2005 (
Factor Structure and Validation of the Juvenile Sex
Offender Assessment Protocol (J-SOAP)
Jeffrey E. Hecker,
and Douglas Nangle
The Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol (J-SOAP) was ﬁrst developed in
1994 in response to the need for a structured method of assessing risk of recidi-
vism among juvenile sexual offenders (R. A. Prentky, B. Harris, K. Frizzell, &
S. Righthand, 2000). Over the ensuing years the scale has been subjected to a
series of studies that have sought to examine its psychometric properties and its
validity. The current paper reports on results from three of these studies, one of
which looks at the factor structure of the items. The other two studies examine
concurrent validity by looking at J-SOAP Scales 1 and 2 in relation to the Level of
Service Inventory—Youth Version with: Youth Level of Service/Case Management
Inventory (YLS/CMI) (R. D. Hoge & D. A. Andrews, 1996) and other selected
variables and discriminant validity by looking at the ability of J-SOAP scales
to differentiate between juvenile sex offenders in the community and juvenile sex
offenders in residential placement. The revision of the scale is discussed based on
the research that has developed the scale and the research that has employed it.
KEY WORDS: juveniles; risk assessment; JSO risk; J-SOAP.
Numerous studies have reported low sexual reoffense rates among juve-
nile sex offenders (e.g., Hecker, Scoular, Righthand, & Nangle, 2002; Kahn &
Chambers, 1991; Lab, Shields, & Schondel, 1993; Martinez, Rosenfeld, & Flores,
2004; Mazur & Michael, 1992; Rasmussen, 1999; Schram, Miloy, & Rowe, 1991;
University of Maine, Orono, Maine.
Justice Resource Institute, Bridgewater, Massachusetts.
Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts.
University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.
To whom correspondence should be addressed at P.O. Box 1047, Rockland, ME 04841; e-mail:
2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.