ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2016, Vol. 89, No. 3, pp. 374−380. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2016.
Original Russian Text © Yu.S. Rybakov, M.P. Dal’kov, I.A. Kaibichev, M.A. Spiridonov,
2016, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2016, Vol. 89, No. 3,
INORGANIC SYNTHESIS AND INDUSTRIAL
Extraction of Contaminant Metals from Dumped Metacolloid
Ores in Order To Reduce Their Hazardousness
Yu. S. Rybakov*, M. P. Dal’kov, I. A. Kaibichev, and M. A. Spiridonov
Ural State Fire Service Institute of the Russian Emergencies Ministry,
ul. Mira 22, Yekaterinburg, 620062 Russia
Received February 16, 2016
Abstract—Problems of human and environmental protection from discharges formed in out-of-balance ores
dumped from nonferrous metallurgy were considered. To the most hazardous dumps belong those of metacolloid
ores, discharges from which are contaminated with copper, zinc, iron, and also indium and cadmium. It was found
that the most effective way to preclude the contamination is by using heap leaching of contaminant metals from
ores in the chemical reclamation of the dumps. Mathematical dependences of the leaching rate of easily soluble
compounds of metals (copper, zinc, indium, and cadmium) from metacolloid ores on the main technological factors
of the process: sulfuric acid concentration, ore spraying density, and oxidation interval between sprayings were
determined, the optimal process modes were found, and the cost-efﬁ cient production of metals in reclamation of
dumps of this kind to a state in which they hardly contaminate the environment was calculated.
The intense development of mining-and-smelting
and chemical industries has resulted in the appearance
of contaminants (gas discharges, unpuriﬁ ed wastewater,
and technology-related formations) and their accumula-
tion. Attempts could be made, to a certain extent, to deal
with gas discharges and wastewater at plants by using the
known techniques, but these methods cannot be always
used with production-induced formations situated outside
the zone of active production cycles.
At present, hundreds of thousands of hectares of drain-
age areas are occupied by various technogenic formations,
and in the ﬁ rst place by dumped out-of-balance ores and
rocks, as a result of the mining and processing of mineral
deposits by plants of nonferrous metallurgy and chemi-
cal industry. There appears a technologically produced
province of a plant, which is strongly hazardous for the
environment and primarily for humans. The industrial
activities contaminate water basins and soils and change
the terrain proﬁ le, nature and structure of landscape, and
hydrological mode [1, 2].
In our opinion, the strategy of protection of water
basins from contamination by discharges from techno-
logically produced formations should be the following.
It is necessary to purify these formations as rapidly as
possible to remove easily soluble contaminants and then
to perform a biological reclaiming or prepare these for-
mations for various kinds of economical activities. The
technologically produced bodies can be puriﬁ ed (chemi-
cally reclaimed) by using geotechnological methods (heap
leaching) that will not only reduce their high hazardous-
ness and protect water basins, but will also extract in a
number of cases the contaminating metals, with their
commercial products obtained .
To the most hazardous technologically produced bod-
ies belong dumps of metacolloid (colloform) ores and
mineralized ores, in which primary sulﬁ de minerals are
dissolved at a rate substantially exceeding that in ordinary
crystalline ores [2, 4, 5].
The goal of our study was to develop a mathematical
model and determine the optimal modes of the leaching
of easily soluble compounds of contaminant metals from
out-of-balance metacolloid ores.