Clinical Orthopaedics Clin Orthop Relat Res (2017) 475:894–902 ® and Related Research DOI 10.1007/s11999-016-5184-6 A Publication of The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons® BASIC RESEARCH Hildemberg A. R. Santiago PhD, Ariane Zamarioli PhD, Manoel D. Sousa Neto PhD, Jose B. Volpon MD, PhD Received: 29 June 2016 / Accepted: 18 November 2016 / Published online: 30 November 2016 The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons1 2016 Abstract secondhand exposure to tobacco smoke adversely affects Background Nonsmokers may be affected by environ- fracture healing. mental tobacco smoke (secondhand smoke), but the effects Methods A mid-diaphyseal fracture was created in the of such exposure on fracture healing have not been well femur of 41 female Wistar rats and ﬁxed with an intra- studied. medullary metallic pin; 14 rats were excluded (nine for Questions/purposes To explore the possible effects of inadequate fractures and ﬁve for K wire extrusion). passive inhalation of tobacco smoke on the healing of a Tobacco exposure was provided by a smoking machine on diaphyseal fracture in femurs of rats. We hypothesized that a daily basis of four cigarettes a day. Each cigarette yielded 10 mg tar and 0.8 mg nicotine, and was puffed by alter- nating injections
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research – Wolters Kluwer Health
Published: Nov 30, 2016
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