Anisakis spp. is a parasitic nematode whose infective third-stage larvae may be found within the flesh of fish species commonly consumed by humans. Thorough cooking or freezing should render the fish safe for consumption; furthermore, marinating solutions containing biocidal agents might have a significant action against Anisakis larvae. Some studies suggest a relationship between some parasitic infections and development of inflammatory bowel disorders, and Anisakis infection might be a risk factor for stomach or colon cancer. The aim of our study was to investigate if crude extracts (CEs) obtained from Anisakis larvae marinated in a solution with added allyl isothiocyanate (ACE-AITC) and frozen, or from frozen only Anisakis larvae (ACE), can induce an inflammatory effect on in vitro differentiated colonic Caco-2 cells exposed or not to LPS. Caco-2 exposure to the two CEs induced a marked COX-2 expression and potentiated LPS-induced COX-2 overexpression, confirming that substances present in Anisakis larvae can induce an inflammatory response in the intestinal epithelium, possibly also exacerbating the effects of other inflammatory stimuli. ACE induced a marked decrease in caspase-3 activation, while AITC-ACE increased its activation. However, LPS-induced caspase-3 activation appeared lower in cells treated with ACE and with the lower concentration of AITC-ACE. Thus, it is evident that Anisakis CEs may affect various cell pathways crucial not only in the inflammatory process but also in cell growth and death. Thus, CEs obtained from nonviable Anisakis larvae retain or are otherwise provided with noxious properties able to induce a strong inflammation response in intestinal epithelial cells. Furthermore, their influence may persist also following pretreatment with the biocidal agent AITC, indicating that the harmful substances contained in crude extracts from Anisakis larvae are resistant to the thermal or biocidal agent treatments.
Parasitology Research – Springer Journals
Published: Jul 12, 2017
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