In this paper, a novel term frequency-inverse document frequency (tf-idf) based method that utilizes deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) for Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) is proposed. That is, we treat the learned filters of the convolutional layers of a CNN model as detectors of visual words. Each of these filters has been trained to be activated in different visual patterns. Thus, since the activations of each filter provide information about the degree of presence of the visual pattern that the filter has learned during the training procedure, we consider the activations of these filters as the tf part. Subsequently, we propose three approaches of computing the idf part. Finally, we propose a query expansion technique on top of the formulated descriptors. The proposed approach interconnects the standard tf-idf method with the modern CNN analysis for visual content, providing a very powerful image retrieval technique with improved results as it is highlighted by extensive experiments in four challenging image datasets.
Multimedia Tools and Applications – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 1, 2018
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