Accessibility and satisfaction related to healthcare services are conceived as multidimensional concepts. These concepts can be studied using objective and subjective measures. In this study, we created two indices: a composite healthcare accessibility index (CHCA) and a composite healthcare satisfaction index (CHCS). To calculate the CHCA index we used three indicators based on three components of multidimensional healthcare accessibility: availability, acceptability and accessibility. In the indicator based on the component of accessibility, we included an innovative perceived time-decay parameter. The three indicators of the CHCA index were weighted through the application of a principal components analysis. To calculate the CHCS index, we used three indicators: the waiting time after the patient arrives at the healthcare service, the quality of the healthcare, and the healthcare service supply. These three indicators making up the CHCA index were weighted by applying an analytical hierarchy process. Three kinds of regressions were subsequently applied in order to explain the CHCA and CHCS indices: namely the Linear Least Squares, Ordinal Logistic, and Random Forests regressions. In these regressions, we used different independent social and health-related variables. These variables represented the predisposing, enabling, and need factors of people´s behaviors related to healthcare. All the calculations were applied to a study area: the city of Quito, Ecuador. Results showed that there are health-related inequalities in regard to healthcare accessibility and healthcare satisfaction in our study area. We also identified specific social factors that explained the indices developed. The present work is a mixed-methods approach to evaluate multidimensional healthcare accessibility and healthcare satisfaction, incorporating a pluralistic perspective, as well as a multidisciplinary framework. The results obtained can also be considered as tools for healthcare and urban planners, for more integrative social analyses that can improve the quality of life in urban residents.
Social Indicators Research – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 2, 2016
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