This experimental study investigated the mean velocity profiles, skin friction and turbulent characteristics of a gravel bed over a wide range of roughness using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV). The median diameter of bed material ranged from 2 to 40 mm, and the normalized roughness heights ranged from 47 to 4,881 mm. The flow regime was fully developed turbulence with a Reynolds number in the range of 4.2 × 104–9.86 × 104. All velocity curves exhibited logarithmic distributions, and the log-law region was influenced greatly by both the roughness and the Reynolds number. Moreover, the roughness of the gravel bed exerted a strong effect on Reynolds stress, and the turbulence tended towards isotropic with increasing roughness. Using statistical analyses, the third-order turbulence moments, sweep, and ejection motions were also examined. The results of this experimental analysis present a contrast to the classical wall similarity hypothesis.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Sep 29, 2011
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